Electricity
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Electricity. The origin, motion, and energy of electrons in circuits; The role of batteries as energy sources and resistors as energy dissipaters in circuits; Conceptual understanding of potential difference (i.e., voltage); Current and resistance and the relationship between them.

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Electricity

Electricity


Electricity

  • The origin, motion, and energy of electrons in circuits;

  • The role of batteries as energy sources and resistors as energy dissipaters in circuits;

  • Conceptual understanding of potential difference (i.e., voltage);

  • Current and resistance and the relationship between them.


Electricity

What Gives Matter a Charge?


Electricity

In Chemistry, you already learned about the interaction of charges.

  • Objects with opposite charges (one negative, one positive) will attract each other.

  • Objects with like charges (both negative or both positive) will repel each other.


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Let’s see what else you remember!


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A particle with a positive charge is called a/an _______________.

proton

neutron

electron


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A particle with a negative charge is called a/an _______________.

proton

neutron

electron


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_________ means to push away.

_________ means to pull together.

charge

charge

attract

attract

repel

repel


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If an electrically-neutral object GAINS electrons, what charge does it now have?

positive

neutral

negative


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If an electrically-neutral object LOSES electrons, what charge does it now have?

positive

neutral

negative


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Let’s start with some vocab…

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Circuit

Current


Electricity

Let’s start with some vocab…

Electricity- a form of energy resulting from charged particles.

Circuit- a closed loop that electrons can flow through

Current-a measure of the flow of electrons (how many electrons pass a point per second)

(measured in Amps)


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What is the difference between open and closed circuits?


Electricity

Click on a term to reveal its definition.

circuit

opencircuit

closed circuit

Proceed to quiz


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Circuit:

A closed-loop path of conduction through which an electric current flows


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Open circuit:

An incomplete path that will not permit an electric current to flow


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Closed circuit:

A complete path for electric current


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Quiz:

What type of circuit is shown in each of the following examples?

Open circuit

Closed circuit


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Open circuit

Closed circuit


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Closed circuit

Open circuit


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Open circuit

Closed circuit


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Open circuit

Closed circuit


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How Do You Make Electricity Do What You Want?


Electricity

Click on a term to reveal its definition and examples.

Insulator

Conductor

Continue


Electricity

Insulator: a substance through which electricity cannot flow readily

Examples…

woodplasticrubber

sulfur glass


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Conductor: a material through which electrons can move easily

Examples…

brassaluminumcopper

graphite water


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Which of these items are conductors?


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Which of these items are insulators?


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What’s the Best Pathway for Electrons?


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There are two main types of circuits:

Parallel

Series

and


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Parallel circuits are circuits with more than one pathway through which electrons can flow.

Series circuits are circuits with only one pathway through which electrons can flow.


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What type of circuits are shown in the following examples?

series

parallel


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parallel

series


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parallel

series


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Holiday lights

parallel

series


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Types of energy sources:

  • Battery:

  • Has two TERMINALS:

  • One positively charged & one negatively charged

  • Chemical reaction occurs in the battery that separates the charges to the positive and negative sides


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Electric Potential Energy

  • This separation of charges (from the chemical reaction) causes a build up of potential energy.

  • Electrons flow from an area of high PE to low PE.

  • Just like gravitational potential energy… video


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Battery cont

  • When a circuit is created , electrons flow from the negative end to the positive end

    • electrons are repulsed by the negative side and attracted to the positive side


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Electrical Energy can be transferred

  • This separation of charges (from the chemical reaction) causes a build up of potential energy.

  • Electrons flow from an area of high PE to low PE.

  • Just like gravitational potential energy… video


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The Circuit


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After the reading “what is voltage?”

  • Voltage is like water pressure

  • Voltage is like a “force” at which the current will flow


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Potential Difference (voltage)

  • Voltage is the measure of potential energy supplied to each coulomb of charge

  • Units- volts (V)

  • Is dependent on the energy source NOT the circuit!

  • the more volts a source has, the more potential energy it has.


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  • The rate (“speed”) at which electrons flow

  • Unit- ampere (A)

  • (aka “amps”)

  • An amp is one coulomb of charge per second

Current


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  • An amp is one coulomb of charge per second

  • A coulomb is the unit for charge

  • There are about 6.24x 1018 electrons in one coulomb


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Resistance

  • Opposes the rate of flow of charge

  • Unit- Ohms ()


Electricity

How are resistance and current related?

- Lab and worksheet


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