Chapter 7
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Chapter 7. Depressants and Inhalants. Depressants. Most widely-used and abused drugs in the U.S Is popular for its stress and anxiety relieving properties. History. Before Barbiturates: Chloral hydrate was first synthesized in1832 but not used clinically until 1870– for sleep

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Chapter 7

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Chapter 7

Chapter 7

Depressants and Inhalants


Depressants

Depressants

  • Most widely-used and abused drugs in the U.S

  • Is popular for its stress and anxiety relieving properties


History

History

  • Before Barbiturates:

    • Chloral hydrate was first synthesized in1832 but not used clinically until 1870– for sleep

    • Paraldehyde was first synthesized in1829 but not used clinically until 1882 – very safe – very, very bad taste and odor

    • Bromides – to induce sleep in the 19th century, used until 1960s in OTC meds


History1

History

  • In the 1950s the first benzodiazepines were marketed as substitutes for barbiturates

    • Relatively safe when used for short periods

    • Long-term use can cause dependence and withdrawal problems


Effects of cns depressants

Effects of CNS Depressants

  • CNS depressants reduce CNS activity and diminish the brain’s level of awareness

  • Depressant drugs include:

    • Benzodiazepines

    • Barbiturate-like drugs

    • Alcohol

    • Antihistamines

    • Opioid narcotics like heroin

    • GHB (gamma hydroxybutyrate)


Types of cns depressants

Types of CNS Depressants

  • Benzodiazepines: Valium-Type drugs

    • Prescribed for anxiety and sleep

    • Four of the top-selling prescription drugs in the U.S.

      • Xanax, Halcion, Ativan, diazepam

  • Medical uses

    • Relief from anxiety, neurosis, muscle relaxation, alleviation of lower-back pain, treatment of convulsive disorders, induction of sleep, relief from withdrawal symptoms, induction of amnesia


Types of cns depressants1

Types of CNS Depressants

  • Types of benzodiazepines:

    • 14 benzodiazepine compounds on the market

    • Distinguished primarily by their duration of action: short-acting (hypnotics), long-acting (sedatives)

  • Side effects:

    • Drowsiness to paradoxical effects (i.e. Rophynol, used to make victims vulnerable to sexual assault)

  • Tolerance, dependence, withdrawal, and abuse


Chapter 7

Figure 7.1

Schematic diagram of the relative time course of two barbiturates and two benzodiazepines after oral administration.


Effects of cns depressants1

Effects of CNS Depressants

  • The clinical value of CNS depressants is dose dependent:

    • Low dose (sedatives, relieve anxiety and promote relaxation)

    • Higher doses (hypnotics, can cause drowsiness and promote sleep)

    • At even higher doses (anesthetics, can cause anesthesia and are used for patient management during surgery)


Effects of inhalants

Effects of Inhalants

  • Nausea

  • Cough/sneeze

  • Light-headedness

  • Damage heart, kidneys, brain

  • Hypoxia/death


Inhalants

Inhalants

  • Gaseous Anesthetics

  • Nitrites

    • Rapid delegation of the arties, great for blood pressure

    • Unpleasant smell

  • Volatile Solvents

  • GHB


Dangers of inhalants

Dangers of Inhalants

  • SSD

  • Damage brain, liver, kidney, heart, fetus

  • Accidents associated with “intoxication” and fires


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