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gotowebinar housekeeping

Your Participation

  • Open and hide your control panel
  • Join audio:
  • Choose “Mic &Speakers” to use VoIP
  • Choose “Telephone” and dial using the information provided
  • Submit questions and comments via the Questions panel
  • Note: Today’s presentation is being recorded and will be provided within a few days.
  • Twitter: @Learning_Ally
GoToWebinar Housekeeping
learning ally s tutor network https www learningally org parents students learning ally approach
Learning Ally’s Tutor Networkhttps://www.learningally.org/parents-students/learning-ally-approach/
  • The nation’s broadest network of reading tutors trained in multisensory structured language (MSL) instruction
  • Tutors specializing in highly structure, phonics based, and kinesthetic programs
  • Every tutor is experienced and certified
  • Goal is to bring reading specialists trained in dyslexia together with parents who need to find the right kind of help for their kids
spotlight on dyslexia national virtual conference friday december 5 2014
Spotlight on Dyslexia –National Virtual ConferenceFriday, December 5, 2014
  • 21 live web-based speakers
    • Including some of the most recognized experts in the field
  • In-depth topics for parents and teachers
  • Advocacy… Research… Crafting an IEP…
  • Keynote speaker: Dana Buchman
reading instruction

Reading Instruction

The Who, What, When and Why

  • Components of successful reading and what dyslexia is and isn’t.
  • What do breakdowns look like?
  • So, what does my child need? (remediations)
what is involved in reading
What is involved in reading?
  • Not a natural act
  • Oral language is hard wired
  • Reading must be taught
  • Rewiring of two different brain structures
    • Visual system
    • Auditory system
    • StanislasDehaene: neuronal recycling
pieces of the reading puzzle
Pieces of the reading puzzle
  • Visual processing
  • Auditory processing
  • Phonemic awareness
  • Phonics/ decoding
  • Fluency
  • Comprehension
dyslexia isn t
Dyslexia isn’t
  • Seeing the letters mixed up or backwards…
dyslexia isn t1
Dyslexia isn’t

Or being stupid or unsuccessful

Loretta Young Henry Winkler

Orlando Bloom Vince Vaughn

Robin William Pierre Curie

Thomas Edison, Michael Faraday, Harry Anderson, Orlando Bloom,

Harry Belafonte, Ann Bancroft, Tom Cruise, Danny Glover, Whoopi Goldberg

Jay Leno, Keanu Reeves, Leonardo da Vinci, AnselAdams, KieraKnightley

Tommy Hilfiger, Pablo Picasso, Bob Weir, Philip William Butler Yeats, John Britten

Robert Rauschenberg, AugusteRodin, Patricia Polacco, Agatha Christie,

Andy Warhol, Cher, Erin Brockovich, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Gustave Flaubert,

John Lennon, Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson, George Patton, Fannie Flagg,

Muhammad Ali, Bruce Jenner, Magic Johnson, Greg Louganis, Nolan Ryan

Andrew Jackson, Gavin Newsom, Paul Wellstone, Woodrow Wilson, Ted Turner,

Nelson Rockefellr, David Boies, Richard Branson, Walt Disney, Charles Schwab,

John Chambers, Henry Ford, William Hewlett, Frank W. Woolworth,

David Neeleman, JetBlue Airways, Paul J. Orfalea, Billy Bob Thornton, Avi,

Steven Spielberg, Scott Adams (Dilbert), Robert Benton, Tom Smothers

Hans Christian Andersen, Richard Engel, Alexander Graham Bell

  • According to the DSM-V, dyslexia is a sub-category of specific learning disorder: an impairment in reading.

“Dyslexia is an alternate term used to refer to a pattern of learning difficulties characterized by problems with accurate or fluent word recognition, poor decoding, and poor spelling abilities.”



  • Going back to the processes in reading, this definition points to difficulties with
    • Phonics
    • Decoding
    • Fluency
  • Definition is descriptive only.
  • No etiology; only symptoms


  • Ageneral term for disorders that involve difficulty in learning to read or interpret words, letters, and other symbols, but that do not affect general intelligence.
what does it look like breakdown in visual processing
What does it look like?Breakdown in visual processing
  • Not about Visual Acuity (but always get that checked first)
  • Trouble tracking
  • Head movement while reading
  • Squinting or blocking one eye or the other
  • Inappropriate number of letter reversals
student k
Student K
  • Diana: “Tell me about the letters when you read. Does anything happen to them?”
  • Student K: “Yeah. They move around. But it’s ok, ‘cause I’ve gotten used to it. Like if I see ot, I know I should read it ‘to’”
what does it look like breakdown in auditory processing
What does it look like?Breakdown in auditory processing
  • Not about hearing acuity (but always get that checked first)
  • Lack of phonological Awareness
  • Speech impediment with reading issue
  • At higher levels, a whole othercan of worms
what does it look like breakdown in phonemic awareness
What does it look like?Breakdown in phonemic awareness
  • Most common cause of dyslexia
  • Groundbreaking research by Sally Shaywitz, M.D.











/a/ /c/ /t/

what does it look like breakdown in phonemic awareness1
What does it look like?Breakdown in phonemic awareness
  • Leaving out or changing sounds in words
  • Difficulty segmenting words into sounds
    • Especially consonant blends
    • Even more especially pre-consonantal nasals
  • Difficulty deleting or changing sounds in words
  • Difficulty rhyming
  • Over-reliance on place in mouth for differentiating sounds

d/t, f/v, jr/dr

what does it look like breakdown in phonics
What does it look like?Breakdown in phonics
  • Difficulty reading and writing
  • More difficulty with nonsense words than sight words
  • Over-reliance on sight words, context, pictures, etc.
  • Difficulty sounding out unknown words
  • Often hits a wall in 3rd grade
  • What we think of as typical dyslexia
what does it look like breakdown in decoding
What does it look like?Breakdown in decoding
  • Part B of phonics
  • Can say individual letter sounds but has trouble putting them together smoothly
  • Adds in extra sounds when sounding out
  • Adds vowel sounds between consonant blends
  • Guesses word by first letter, length and shape Student L: ignorant instead of ingredient
what does it look like breakdown in fluency
What does it look like?Breakdown in fluency
  • Reads single words better than connected text
  • Reading still effortful
  • Slow reading
    • Double Deficit HypothesisMaryanne Wolf
    • Processing Speed
    • Retrieval
what does it look like breakdown in comprehension
What does it look like?Breakdown in comprehension
  • Trouble answering comprehension questions
  • Reading is BORING (stupid, annoying, etc.).
remediation b reakdown in visual processing
RemediationBreakdown in visual processing
  • Visual skills TrainingBehavioral or Developmental OptometristYes, it is controversial, but when it works, it works.
remediation breakdown in visual processing1
RemediationBreakdown in visual processing
  • Mazes, dot-to-dots, color by number, word searches, balloon toss, see-through marble mazes
  • Big, sans serif print
  • Reading instruction!
remediation for breakdown in auditory processing
Remediationfor. . .Breakdown in auditory processing
  • AIT: Auditory Integration Training
  • Earobics
  • Fast Forward
  • Explicit phonemic awareness activities
remediation for breakdowns in phonemic awareness
Remediation for. . .Breakdowns in phonemic awareness
  • What word do you make if. . .
    • Deletion
    • Substitution
  • Tapping sounds
  • Dr. Seuss! (Stop to let student predict word)
  • Apples and Bananas, etc.











/a/ /c/ /t/

remediation for breakdown in phonics
Remediation for…Breakdown in phonics
  • What do you get when you cross a Linguist/Teacher with a Neuropsychologist whoworks with children?
  • Samuel Torrey Orton
  • Anna Gillingham
  • 1935/36
remediation for breakdown in phonics1
Remediation for…Breakdown in phonics
  • Explicit, systematic, multi-sensory phonics Instruction
  • Orton-Gillingham
    • Slingerland
    • Wilson
    • Barton
    • LindamoodBell Seeing Stars*
    • Recipe for Reading
    • Angling for Words
    • Language!
remediation for breakdown in phonics2
Remediation for…Breakdown in phonics
  • Slingerland
    • Developed in 1960 as an adaptation of Orton-Gillingham for the classroom
    • Focus on big muscle memory
remediation for breakdown in phonics3
Remediation for…Breakdown in phonics
  • Wilson: Adaptation by Barbara Wilson of OG to make it more user-friendly
  • Different programsfor different ages
remediation for breakdown in phonics4
Remediation for…Breakdown in phonics
  • Barton: adaptation of OG to make it even more user-friendly
  • Parent volunteer model
remediation for breakdown in phonics5
Remediation for…Breakdown in phonics
  • Lindamood Bell Seeing Stars
  • Focuses more on visual memory than other programs
remediation for breakdown in phonics6
Remediation for…Breakdown in phonics
  • Recipe for Reading
  • Angling for Words
  • Language!
  • All different adaptations of OG
remediation for decoding
Remediation for. . .Decoding
  • Phonics Part B
  • Included in all OG programs
  • Explicit practice in blending
    • Scooping
  • Decodable Booksaka Controlled Text
remediation for breakdowns in fluency
Remediation for…Breakdowns in fluency
  • Echo Reading, aka Choral Reading
  • Repeat Readings
  • RAVE-O (Maryanne Wolf)
    • Processing Speed and Retrieval(probably) cannot be remediated
    • BUT the more neurons connect to a word, the faster it is recalled
      • Multiple Meanings
      • Syntax, Morphology, etc
remediation for breakdowns in fluency1
Remediation for…Breakdowns in fluency
  • Read Naturally
    • Focus on fluent reading through repeat reading and echo reading
    • One Minute Reader iPad app
remediation for breakdowns in comprehension
Remediation for. . .Breakdowns in comprehension
  • Work on phonics, decoding and fluency
    • Reduce cognitive load
    • Free up processing space for comprehension
the remediation accommodation balance
The remediation/ accommodation balance
  • By definition, there is a gap between the level a student can read and the level that student can understand
  • Cannot afford to wait until they can read to
    • build vocabulary
    • build understanding of literate language
    • access content
    • access higher order thinking skills
the remediation accommodation balance1
The remediation/ accommodation balance
  • Need to work on two pathways simultaneously
  • Remediation
    • At the student’s independent reading level
  • Accommodation
    • At the student’s cognitive level (oral language level)
  • Accommodation is
    • Not cheating!!!!
    • All about fair and equal access
    • Absolutely necessary

Questions & Answers

Contact info:


Diana Kennedy



Learning Ally customer [email protected]


Webinar questions?

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