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PRESENTATION TO IEEE PES, ORLANDO CHAPTER: “ GROUNDING & BONDING CONSIDERATIONS FOR SUBSTATION COMMUNICATIONS AND “SMART GRID””. Developed and Presented By: Adrian G Zvarych, PE Principal Engineer TRC Engineering Member, IEEE 24 September 2009 [email protected]

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PRESENTATION TO IEEE PES, ORLANDO CHAPTER:“GROUNDING & BONDING CONSIDERATIONS FOR SUBSTATION COMMUNICATIONS AND “SMART GRID””

Developed and Presented By:

Adrian G Zvarych, PE

Principal Engineer

TRC Engineering

Member, IEEE

24 September 2009

[email protected]

Additional Contributions & Peer Review By: Michael Cunningham, Senior Engineer - TRC


Class objectives
Class Objectives

  • Understand Substation Grounding/Bonding Design Goals to Satisfy Communications Requirements

  • Review of Typical Substation Control House Grounding/Bonding Practices

  • Review Typical Telecom Room Grounding/Bonding Practices

  • Necessary Grounding & Bonding Elements for a Smart Grid Friendly and Communications – Ready Substation Control House

  • Look-Ahead for other opportunities

  • Review

40

Years of Service

1969

2009


Change has been happening
Change Has Been Happening

40

Years of Service

1969

2009


Part 1 substation communications evolution
Part 1: Substation Communications Evolution

  • Communications migration path:

    • Analog to digital

    • Discrete to multiplexed

    • Local Information decision needs to remote and diverse needs

    • Lower Reliability to High Reliability (design and need)

    • Minimal regulation (self- on inter-industry regulation to increased scrutiny and regulation by others)

40

Years of Service

1969

2009


Pilot Wire Interface

& Isolation Transformers


Circa 1900 s distribution breakers
Circa 1900’s Distribution Breakers

1912 – Manufactured GE Oil Break Switch…

STILL IN SERVICE!!!!


Legacy substation communications systems
Legacy Substation Communications Systems

PEOPLE/OPERATIONS

  • Station Operators with all local indication

  • Communications to Control Center via Power Line Carrier or Telephone Company Copper Circuits (SCADA)

  • Radio Dispatch for Crews

    RELAY PROTECTION

  • Power Line Carrier (first digital form of substation communications “ON-OFF”)

  • Copper Based Pilot Wire

  • All analog meters and electromechanical relays

  • Needs driven by electric utility operations & reliability

40

Years of Service

1969

2009


Advancements in legacy substation relaying and communications
Advancements in Legacy Substation Relaying and Communications

  • Driven by build out of high voltage and EHV transmission grid

    • Need for high speed and reliable/secure relaying

    • Need for remote and central monitoring and control of station equipment

    • First discrete component “solid state” relaying deployed in substations in the 1970s

  • Single Side-Band Power Line Carrier – more channels, more functionality

  • Analog Point-To-Point Microwave

  • Optical Networks

40

Years of Service

1969

2009


Development of non copper substation communications systems
Development of “Non-Copper” Substation Communications Systems

  • Analog Microwave (circa 1960’s)

  • Digital Microwave (circa 1980’s)

  • Spread Spectrum – 900MHz (circa 1980’s)

  • Fiber (circa 1990’s)

40

Years of Service

1969

2009


Advancements of components technology
Advancements of Components/Technology Systems

Protective Relaying

  • Electromechanical Relays – Solid State Relays

  • Solid State Relays – Microprocessor Relays

    Communications

  • Copper

  • Analog Microwave

  • Digital Microwave

  • 900MHz – Licensed & Spread Spectrum/Unlicensed

  • Fiber

  • Discrete Analog  Digital Multiplexed  IP

40

Years of Service

1969

2009


BROADBAND CARRIER CLASS NETWORKS Systems

DS0-1

DS0-2

DS1-1

DS0-3

OC1-1

OC3-1

DS0-4

DS1-2

OC48-1

OC192

.

.

.

OC12-1

DS1-3

OC1-2

OC3-2

DS0-24

OC12-2

OC48-2

DS1-4

OC1-3

OC3-3

.

.

.

OC12-3

OC3-4

OC48-3

DS1-28

OC12-4

OC48-4

IMUX

JMUX

JUNGLEMUX EXPANDABLE

TO OC48 BANDWIDTH

TELECOMMUNICATIONS CIRCUIT HIERARCHY

Phone lines

per circuit type

1

24

672

2,016

8,064

32,256

129,024

oo

DWDM



Effects of smart grid and communications technology
Effects of Smart Grid and Communications Technology Systems

  • Higher density of low-signal voltage circuits (RS-232, RS-485) over copper in the control house

  • More fiber in the control house

  • More non-substation hardened devices entering the control house

  • IT-Telecom teams becoming more involved in substation control houses

  • Organizational awareness of substation environment vs data center/telecom room requirements

40

Years of Service

1969

2009


Users of substation information
Users of Substation Information Systems

  • System Operators

  • P&C Engineering

  • Asset Management

  • Customer Service Center

  • Field Maintenance Personnel (line trucks, P&C, substation, etc.)

  • Electric System Customers (indirectly)

  • Personnel Managers

  • Corporate Security (access management, surveillance)

  • IT-Security Cyber-Security Teams

  • Utility Interchange (Where Transmission Tammy draws the line…)

  • Others…

40

Years of Service

1969

2009


Substation communications change is here
Substation Communications: Change Is Here Systems

Traditional

  • Telemetry  Watts, Vars, Volts, Amps

  • Status  Open, Closed, Major, Minor

  • Control  Open, Close, Raise, Lower

  • Voice

  • SCADA – Analog/4 Wire AC Data

    Present Day

  • All of the above, plus

  • Temperature  Outdoor Ambient, Control House

  • Transformer Telemetry  Winding Temps, Dissolved Gas, Tap Position

  • Battery Voltage

  • IP Services

    • Security  Surveillance, Door Access Control

    • High Speed Remote Access for IEDs

    • Syncrophasors

    • Local Employee LAN Access

    • SCADA

40

Years of Service

1969

2009


Change is here
“Change Is Here” Systems

  • Increased data flow (to 27 TB/day or higher in larger utility systems) from substations

  • Not just SCADA

  • Non-Traditional organizations using or managing substation systems and information

  • Increased deployment of non-station hardened equipment, despite efforts by IEEE to develop standards such as IEEE-1613

40

Years of Service

1969

2009


Part 2 navigating the transition
PART 2: NAVIGATING THE TRANSITION Systems

  • GOALS OF GROUNDING/BONDING – SUBSTATION AND TELECOM

  • BASICS AND DEFINITIONS

  • REAL WORLD CASE STUDY


Grounding and bonding basics
Grounding and Bonding Basics Systems

Substation Goals

Safety

  • Step and Touch

  • Ground Potential Rise

    Reliability

  • Lightning Mast/Shielding

  • Minimize Electrical System Damage and Outages

  • Lightning/Transient Suppression Equipment

  • Equalize potential differences across the station grid & in the control building

  • Systems redundancy emphasized on Bulk Power and system-significant generation

40

Years of Service

1969

2009


Grounding and bonding basics1
Grounding and Bonding Basics Systems

Telecommunications Goals

Safety

  • Bonding of metallic components

    Reliability

  • Lightning protection and mitigation – outdoor

  • Single Point Ground Location for all attachments (Main Ground Bus)

  • Minimize equipment damage

  • Minimize telecom circuit outage time

  • Equipment and systems redundancy emphasized on Broadband

  • Reduce electrical noise

  • Reference for DC voltage

40

Years of Service

1969

2009


Substation grounding a great start
Substation Grounding – A Great Start! Systems

All outdoor metallic components are bonded to earth ground

  • Breakers

  • Transformers

  • Structures

  • Static Wires/OPGW

  • Distribution Neutrals

  • Station Service

  • Lightning Shielding (masts, overhead shield wires, etc.)

    Control House

  • 4/0 copper grounding conductors brought in from grid (multiple places typically) CAUTION!!!

  • 4/0 conductors snaked through cable trench/cable tray system, reduced to AWG #6 as needed for rack/panel connection

  • Relay/Metering/Control Panels tied to bond ‘snake’ running through the trench or tray cable management system

40

Years of Service

1969

2009


Ansi ieee substation grounding standards
ANSI/IEEE Substation Grounding Standards Systems

IEEE 80: Guide for Safety in AC Substation Grounding

Technical Target: Outdoor AC substations

Purpose:

  • Establish safe limits of potential differences – human body interface

  • Substation grounding practices review for safety/safe design practices

  • Provide a procedure for the design of practical grounding systems based on the above

  • Develop analytical methods to aid in the understanding of gradient problems

    DOES NOT PROVIDE GUIDANCE FOR TELECOM RELIABILITY!!!

40

Years of Service

1969

2009


Telecom friendly aspects of ieee 80
Telecom – Friendly Aspects of IEEE 80 Systems

Core benefits of an IEEE 80 ground grid design for Telecommunications

  • Excellent low net ground grid resistance, ½ ohm is possible, depending on final design

  • Site – specific ground grid design

  • Human – safe design, from a step-and-touch perspective

  • Ground Potential Rise voltage is typically limited and affected by step-and-touch design criteria

40

Years of Service

1969

2009


Grounding and bonding goals for telecom
Grounding and Bonding Goals For Telecom Systems

  • Safety – minimize potential differences between metallic paths

  • Reliability – ensure proper comm circuit operation despite transient conditions

  • Eliminate ground loops

  • Establish single point ground reference point in any one defined area (such as a control building room)

  • Provide an engineered design for grounding and bonding in an area with telecom equipment

40

Years of Service

1969

2009


Fundamental differences between substation telecom grounding control house
Fundamental Differences Between Substation Systems& Telecom Grounding (Control House)

SUBSTATION

  • Not engineered by site, considered a ‘standard’ practice.

  • Grounding conductors can enter the control house in multiple locations and are tied to the station ground grid at different points

  • Racks bolted directly to the floor and to each other

  • Floating DC

  • Floor materials vary

  • No minimum ground/bond conductor radius typically specified

TELECOM SITE

  • Engineered on a site basis (can be templatized)

  • Single point connection to ground field

  • Racks are isolated from the floor and from each other

  • DC (+) is grounded

  • Floor materials are conductive/anti-static

  • Minimum Bend Radius Specified for transient flow

40

Years of Service

1969

2009


Telecom grounding bonding
Telecom Grounding & Bonding Systems

Definitions

  • “Grounding” – providing an engineered, low impedance path to earth

  • “Bonding” – the permanent joining of metallic parts to form an electrically conductive path which will assure electrical continuity and the capacity to safely conduct any current likely to be imposed, including 60Hz and transients

  • Grounded Conductor – a system or circuit conductor that is intentionally grounded (these normally carry current)

    • Example: Electrical neutral wire, the DC (+) cable in 48 V DC Telecom supplies

  • Grounding Conductor – a conductor used to connect equipment or the grounded circuit of a wiring system to a grounding electrode or electrodes (these do not normally carry current)

    • Example: AC Circuit electrical ground wire (the green wire), grounding wires used to interconnect racks, equipment bonding jumpers

40

Years of Service

1969

2009


Telecom grounding bonding1
Telecom Grounding & Bonding Systems

Definitions (cont’d)

Solid Ground – an intentional connection to a grounding system, using a grounding wire in which there is no additional impedance imposed

Incidental Ground – an unplanned grounding connection. Example – a conductive cabinet attached to a concrete surface via Tapcon screws can be said to be ‘Incidentally Grounded’

Earthing Electrode – a copper or copper-clad steel rod driven into the earth to provide a lower impedance path to true earth ground. Other types of earthing electrodes are steel well casings, structural steel ground grids, metallic piping for water, sewer, etc.

True Earth Ground – a virtual location beneath the earth’s surface, where electrical resistance and impedance is zero, and ‘ground’ currents run freely, whether man-made or natural

Skin Depth – a frequency and materials dependent calculation which determines the penetration of current flow density into the surface of a conductor. http://www.microwaves101.com/encyclopedia/calsdepth.cfm

40

Years of Service

1969

2009


Telecom grounding bonding2
Telecom Grounding & Bonding Systems

Components of a Telecom Grounding & Bonding System at a Substation

CHPGP: Control House Principal Ground Point

A ground bus bar located near the cable connection to the substation ground grid. It serves as the central connection point for all main grounding conductors and earthing electrode

Horizontal Equalizer

An insulated grounding conductor which has it’s origination point at the CHPGP, with the function of connecting conductive equipment in a home run fashion to the principal grounding point in the room

Halo Ground

A grounding conductor, supported on insulated stand-offs around the perimeter of the room, typically installed at seven feet or higher elevation, to which all peripheral equipment are bonded (HVAC, Heaters, Junction Boxes, etc.). The Halo is a radial connection, and not a complete electrical loop.

Mechanical and Exothermic Connections

Cable-to-device or cable-cable connections. Outdoor connections are typically exothermic, in-building connections are typically mechanical compression, with two-hole lugs.

Hardware & Miscellaneous

Insulated stand offs, cable management, plexiglas or Lexan shields, stainless steel nuts & bolts, no-oxide grease, exothermic weld molds, mechanical connectors, etc.

40

Years of Service

1969

2009


Case study wind farm control house application
Case Study: Wind Farm Control House Application Systems

Attributes:

  • Collector Station (34kV-230kV) yard adjacent to transmission switching station

  • Transmission switching station has microwave tower for Primary relaying channel, SCADA, and internal voice communications

  • Copper leased entrance cable, with isolation, at Transmission control house

  • Transmission control house has “PRIMARY” and “SECONDARY” rooms

  • Communications racks and telco isolation equipment in PRIMARY room

  • PA System in place to cover the switchyard (copper connections to yard corners)

40

Years of Service

1969

2009


Grounding bonding communications tower outside facilities
Grounding-Bonding SystemsCommunications Tower & Outside Facilities

  • Wireless communications for Smart Grid

    • Requires lightning protection @ top

    • Proper bonding along feedline route

      • Bond @ antenna

      • Bond prior to horizontal transition

      • Bond prior to CH entry

      • Center conductor protection just inside CH

    • Driven rods @ tower & feedline entrance

40

Years of Service

1969

2009

STATION GROUND GRID


Case study substation
Case Study SystemsSubstation




Ice Bridge Detail Systems

40

Years of Service

1969

2009


40 Systems

Years of Service

1969

2009

Inside Wall Elevation


Cross Section Elevation Systems

40

Years of Service

1969

2009



Grounding-Bonding Inside The Control House Systems

  • Key Design Features:

  • Single Point Ground Bus (no ground loops)

  • Discrete (insulated preferred) home-run bonding connections to all equipment connections:

    • Cable tray & rack taps

    • AC System Neutral @ AC Panel

    • Telecom Reference Ground point

    • Substation ground grid connection

    • Building steel

    • Microwave feedlines

  • Departure From Telecom Practice

    • Racks directly bolted to floor and each other without isolation

    • Cable trays may not be bonded across joints

    • Grounding conductors not insulated

40

Years of Service

1969

2009



SCADA “Master” 900 MHz Transceiver Systems

900 MHz SCADA “Remote” 900 MHz Transceiver – Indoor Mount


“Smart” Recloser Systems

“Master” Tower



Simple Feedline Entrance Systems

Halo Ground


Outdoor Main Ground Bus Mounting Systems

Insulated Stand-Off




  • Main Ground Bus… Systems“Producers” and “Absorbers” SeparatedClear separation of power, grounding, and data cables



“A” and “B” Systems

Battery Strings

Separately

Grounded


Isolation pads under rack SystemsAnti-Static floor tiles


Look ahead other opportunities
Look-Ahead – Other Opportunities Systems

  • Cable Management

    • Low Voltage Serial Connections: RS-232/485, GPS

    • Ethernet

    • Fiber Optic Entrance and Patch Cables

  • Non-Substation Hardened Equipment

  • Security (card access, surveillance, etc.)

  • Working with teams outside “Transmission Engineering”


Summary
Summary Systems

  • Communications Grounding-Bonding practices require safety, but also reliability

  • Control House equipment connects to a single – point ground bus bar to which all metallic elements are bonded

  • Soft – radius bends for all grounding and bonding connections

  • Minimize or eliminate ground loops



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