Symbiosis
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Symbiosis. Symbiosis. Symbioses - species living in close association Parasitism +,- parasite benefits, host harmed Commensalism +,0 or 0,0 can have positive effect for one species or for neither Mutualism +,+ both species benefit . Gopher Tortoise – Commensal Host.

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Symbiosis

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Symbiosis


Symbiosis

  • Symbioses - species living in close association

  • Parasitism +,- parasite benefits, host harmed

  • Commensalism +,0 or 0,0 can have positive effect for one species or for neither

  • Mutualism +,+ both species benefit


Gopher Tortoise – Commensal Host


Gopher Tortoise Distribution


Epiphytes

Bird’s Nest

Fern


Nalini Nadkarni

studying

epiphytes


Epiphytes

Figure 1: Hypothetical tree illustrating how vascular epiphytes in humid forests tend to partition substrates illustrating sensitivity to micro climate, particularly humidity, and associated development of the organic rooting media required by some populations.


Parasitism and Disease

Lyme Disease Cycle in the UK


Parasitism

  • Parasitism - intimate association between two species in which the parasite obtains its nutrients from a host - parasite usually causes some degree of harm to its host - either reduced growth or reproduction

  • Pathogen – disease causing agent

  • Disease – abnormal condition of host due to infection by a pathogen that impairs physiological functioning


Parasites on

Plants


Insects are green,

Fungi are brown,

Worms are blue,

Protozoa are yellow


Parasitism occurs on a continuum from:

  • ectoparasites - live outside hosts body and experience same conditions as host - ticks, mites, fleas, aphids

  • endoparasites - live inside host's body cavity - buffered from outside conditions - tapeworms, flukes

  • intracellular parasites - live inside individual cells of the host - viruses, bacteria, protozoa - often called microparasites


Or another way to divide parasites:

  • microparasites - viruses, bacteria, protozoa - small, often live intracellularly, main point is that they reproduce in host and will have very large numbers in host

  • macroparasites - tiny to very large - nematodes, tapeworms, flukes - larger individuals that grow in host but multiply by producing infective stages that are shed by host to environment where they infect new hosts


Parasite Transmission

  • Direct transmission – from one host to another of the same species via air, water, coughing, blood, feces, etc.

  • Indirect transmission – from one host to another of the same species via another species called a vector

  • Vector – species which transmits parasite or pathogen from one host to another


Powdery Mildew on Grape Leaf


Powdery Mildew Life Cycle


Head Lice and Life Cycle


Mistletoe


Mistletoe Life Cycle


Malaria disease cycle


Schistosomiasis - Life cycle of the schistosome worm


Worldwide incidence of schistosomiasis


Worldwide incidence of schistosomiasis


Rust Fungus Canker


Rust Fungus Life Cycle


Two ways to study parasite numbers

  • Prevalence – percent of host population that is infected – best for microparasites

  • Intensity – number of parasite individuals per host – usually best for macroparasites


European rabbits as pests in Australia - 1938


Introduced pests in Australia – red fox, rabbit, cat, pig, & goat


Moose and White-tailed Deer


Deer – Moose brain worm interaction


Fungal parasites alter insect behavior

Giant ant w/o and with fungus


Avian malaria occurs in areas below white line on Island of Hawaii


Hawaiian Crow – Extinct in Wild


I’iwi Honeycreeper – highly susceptible to avian malaria


Akiapolaau Honeycreeper – restricted to high elevation today


Amakihi Honeycreeper – shows evidence of evolving resistance


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