Symbiosis
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Symbiosis. Symbiosis. Symbioses - species living in close association Parasitism +,- parasite benefits, host harmed Commensalism +,0 or 0,0 can have positive effect for one species or for neither Mutualism +,+ both species benefit . Gopher Tortoise – Commensal Host.

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Symbiosis

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Symbiosis

Symbiosis


Symbiosis1

Symbiosis

  • Symbioses - species living in close association

  • Parasitism +,- parasite benefits, host harmed

  • Commensalism +,0 or 0,0 can have positive effect for one species or for neither

  • Mutualism +,+ both species benefit


Symbiosis

Gopher Tortoise – Commensal Host


Symbiosis

Gopher Tortoise Distribution


Epiphytes

Epiphytes

Bird’s Nest

Fern


Symbiosis

Nalini Nadkarni

studying

epiphytes


Epiphytes1

Epiphytes

Figure 1: Hypothetical tree illustrating how vascular epiphytes in humid forests tend to partition substrates illustrating sensitivity to micro climate, particularly humidity, and associated development of the organic rooting media required by some populations.


Parasitism and disease

Parasitism and Disease

Lyme Disease Cycle in the UK


Parasitism

Parasitism

  • Parasitism - intimate association between two species in which the parasite obtains its nutrients from a host - parasite usually causes some degree of harm to its host - either reduced growth or reproduction

  • Pathogen – disease causing agent

  • Disease – abnormal condition of host due to infection by a pathogen that impairs physiological functioning


Symbiosis

Parasites on

Plants


Symbiosis

Insects are green,

Fungi are brown,

Worms are blue,

Protozoa are yellow


Parasitism occurs on a continuum from

Parasitism occurs on a continuum from:

  • ectoparasites - live outside hosts body and experience same conditions as host - ticks, mites, fleas, aphids

  • endoparasites - live inside host's body cavity - buffered from outside conditions - tapeworms, flukes

  • intracellular parasites - live inside individual cells of the host - viruses, bacteria, protozoa - often called microparasites


Or another way to divide parasites

Or another way to divide parasites:

  • microparasites - viruses, bacteria, protozoa - small, often live intracellularly, main point is that they reproduce in host and will have very large numbers in host

  • macroparasites - tiny to very large - nematodes, tapeworms, flukes - larger individuals that grow in host but multiply by producing infective stages that are shed by host to environment where they infect new hosts


Parasite transmission

Parasite Transmission

  • Direct transmission – from one host to another of the same species via air, water, coughing, blood, feces, etc.

  • Indirect transmission – from one host to another of the same species via another species called a vector

  • Vector – species which transmits parasite or pathogen from one host to another


Powdery mildew on grape leaf

Powdery Mildew on Grape Leaf


Powdery mildew life cycle

Powdery Mildew Life Cycle


Head lice and life cycle

Head Lice and Life Cycle


Mistletoe

Mistletoe


Mistletoe life cycle

Mistletoe Life Cycle


Symbiosis

Malaria disease cycle


Schistosomiasis life cycle of the schistosome worm

Schistosomiasis - Life cycle of the schistosome worm


Worldwide incidence of schistosomiasis

Worldwide incidence of schistosomiasis


Worldwide incidence of schistosomiasis1

Worldwide incidence of schistosomiasis


Rust fungus canker

Rust Fungus Canker


Rust fungus life cycle

Rust Fungus Life Cycle


Two ways to study parasite numbers

Two ways to study parasite numbers

  • Prevalence – percent of host population that is infected – best for microparasites

  • Intensity – number of parasite individuals per host – usually best for macroparasites


Symbiosis

European rabbits as pests in Australia - 1938


Introduced pests in australia red fox rabbit cat pig goat

Introduced pests in Australia – red fox, rabbit, cat, pig, & goat


Symbiosis

Moose and White-tailed Deer


Deer moose brain worm interaction

Deer – Moose brain worm interaction


Fungal parasites alter insect behavior

Fungal parasites alter insect behavior

Giant ant w/o and with fungus


Avian malaria occurs in areas below white line on island of hawaii

Avian malaria occurs in areas below white line on Island of Hawaii


Hawaiian crow extinct in wild

Hawaiian Crow – Extinct in Wild


I iwi honeycreeper highly susceptible to avian malaria

I’iwi Honeycreeper – highly susceptible to avian malaria


Akiapolaau honeycreeper restricted to high elevation today

Akiapolaau Honeycreeper – restricted to high elevation today


Amakihi honeycreeper shows evidence of evolving resistance

Amakihi Honeycreeper – shows evidence of evolving resistance


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