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Symbiosis. Symbiosis. Symbioses - species living in close association Parasitism +,- parasite benefits, host harmed Commensalism +,0 or 0,0 can have positive effect for one species or for neither Mutualism +,+ both species benefit . Gopher Tortoise – Commensal Host.

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Symbiosis1
Symbiosis

  • Symbioses - species living in close association

  • Parasitism +,- parasite benefits, host harmed

  • Commensalism +,0 or 0,0 can have positive effect for one species or for neither

  • Mutualism +,+ both species benefit




Epiphytes
Epiphytes

Bird’s Nest

Fern


Nalini Nadkarni

studying

epiphytes


Epiphytes1
Epiphytes

Figure 1: Hypothetical tree illustrating how vascular epiphytes in humid forests tend to partition substrates illustrating sensitivity to micro climate, particularly humidity, and associated development of the organic rooting media required by some populations.


Parasitism and disease
Parasitism and Disease

Lyme Disease Cycle in the UK


Parasitism
Parasitism

  • Parasitism - intimate association between two species in which the parasite obtains its nutrients from a host - parasite usually causes some degree of harm to its host - either reduced growth or reproduction

  • Pathogen – disease causing agent

  • Disease – abnormal condition of host due to infection by a pathogen that impairs physiological functioning



Insects are green,

Fungi are brown,

Worms are blue,

Protozoa are yellow


Parasitism occurs on a continuum from
Parasitism occurs on a continuum from:

  • ectoparasites - live outside hosts body and experience same conditions as host - ticks, mites, fleas, aphids

  • endoparasites - live inside host's body cavity - buffered from outside conditions - tapeworms, flukes

  • intracellular parasites - live inside individual cells of the host - viruses, bacteria, protozoa - often called microparasites


Or another way to divide parasites
Or another way to divide parasites:

  • microparasites - viruses, bacteria, protozoa - small, often live intracellularly, main point is that they reproduce in host and will have very large numbers in host

  • macroparasites - tiny to very large - nematodes, tapeworms, flukes - larger individuals that grow in host but multiply by producing infective stages that are shed by host to environment where they infect new hosts


Parasite transmission
Parasite Transmission

  • Direct transmission – from one host to another of the same species via air, water, coughing, blood, feces, etc.

  • Indirect transmission – from one host to another of the same species via another species called a vector

  • Vector – species which transmits parasite or pathogen from one host to another













Two ways to study parasite numbers
Two ways to study parasite numbers

  • Prevalence – percent of host population that is infected – best for microparasites

  • Intensity – number of parasite individuals per host – usually best for macroparasites






Fungal parasites alter insect behavior
Fungal parasites alter insect behavior & goat

Giant ant w/o and with fungus







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