Russia in the 19 th century
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Russia in the 19 th Century. Alexander I Nicholas I Alexander II & III Nicholas II. Russia in the 19th Century. Russian society remained semi-feudal and backward, with much popular discontent. Russia remained isolated from Western culture and did not modernize.

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Russia in the 19 th Century

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Russia in the 19 th century

Russia in the 19th Century

Alexander I

Nicholas I

Alexander II & III

Nicholas II


Russia in the 19th century

Russia in the 19th Century

  • Russian society remained semi-feudal and backward, with much popular discontent.

  • Russia remained isolated from Western culture and did not modernize.

  • Oppression & censorship increased and the government was inefficient.

  • Czars were anti-liberal

  • Russia was weak internationally & began to lose foreign wars (Crimean, Russo-Japanese)


Economic reforms in general

Economic reforms, in general

  • Industrialism

  • Government led by finance minister, Witte

  • Railroad construction--trans-Siberian railway

  • Protective tariffs, foreign loans

  • Booming petroleum and steel industry

  • but…poor standard of living, poor working conditions, resistance from freed serfs, no unions or strikes

  • Growing business class benefited and supported the government, didn’t want to challenge the tsar


Repression and revolution

Repression and Revolution

  • Peasant revolts

  • Intelligentsia and anarchists

  • reprisals and repression by state

  • assassination of the tsar (Alexander II)

  • Russification

  • pograms against Jews

  • uncompromising repression by Nicholas II

  • Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905)

  • Revolution of 1905: Bloody Sunday


Russia in the 19 th century

  • Russia: Decembrist Uprising (1825)

    Alexander I (1810-1825) initially favored Enlightened despotism but after 1815 grew increasingly reactionary. His death led to a power vacuum.

    Nicholas I assumed the Russian throne after death of Alexander I.

    Decembrists (junior military officers): upper-class opponents of the autocratic Russian system of gov’t, who supported popular grievances among Russian society. Failed in their revolt.

    Nicholas became Europe’s most reactionary monarch

    Intellectuals developed two opposing camps in this period:

    • Slavolphiles believed that Russian village (the mir) culture was superior to that of the West.

    • Westernizers wanted to extend the “genius of Russian culture” by industrializing and setting up a constitutional gov’t.


Nicholas i 1825 55 orthodoxy autocracy nationalism

Nicholas I (1825-55)“Orthodoxy, Autocracy, Nationalism”

  • Dictatorial ruler who stood for strong nationalism, autocracy, and religious orthodoxy.

  • He did the following:

    • Expanded the royal bureaucracy

    • Published a new legal code

    • Fostered industry and Railroads

    • Enforced strict censorship with secret police

    • Had strong control over the military

    • Lost the Crimean War

    • Put down a Polish revolt


Autocracy

Autocracy

  • Defender of the old paternalistic discipline against the influence of rotten pagan France

  • Horror of the Decembrists revolt

  • The Tsar is the father

  • The third section of the Chancery was in charge of state security

    • Shadowed 2000 persons annually


Nationality

Nationality

  • Slavophils thought Russian institutions superior to institutions of the west.

  • Extension of Russian influence over the neighbouring countries, Balkan countries, countries to the south (Armenia), Vladivostok founded in the east.

  • Suppression of the Polish revolt 1831


Russia lost the crimean war 1854 56 more on this later

Russia lost the Crimean War 1854-56(More on this later)

  • Tsar Nicholas died during the war

  • Russian strength proved to be an illusion

  • Lack of communication hindered mobilisation

  • Industry unable to provide weapons

  • The autocratic government was forced to reform, otherwise Russia and Autarchy would perish


Alexander ii general overview

Alexander IIGeneral Overview


Alexander ii 1855 81

Alexander II (1855-81)

  • A conservative reformer, who abolished serfdom in 1861.

  • Had to deal with loss of Crimean War

  • Zemstvo Laws: created local assemblies to solve local problems in 1864.

  • As reform led to radical demands, many groups began to plot and carry out terrorist acts.

  • 1881: Alexander was assassinatedin 1881


Alexander ii crimean war continued

Alexander IICrimean War… continued


Effect of crimean war started under nicholas i ended after alexander ii was in charge

Effect of Crimean war(Started under Nicholas I, ended after Alexander II was in charge)

  • Internationally

    • Austria isolated from Russia and the west.

      • Opening up for Italian unification

      • France becomes dominant power

      • Prussia gains prestige among German states

    • Russia becomes isolated and the unification of Germany becomes more likely.

  • In Russia

    • Reforms from above 1855-1874


Russian foreign policy after the crimean war

Russian foreign policy after the Crimean war

  • From 1856-1870 Russia passive

    • Bitterness towards Austria because Austria had not supported Russia in the war

    • Russian aim to revise the Black Sea clauses of the treaty of Paris

    • 1856-63 friendship with France the strongest power in Europe

    • Renounced this friendship after

      • French adventures in Italy and

      • the sympathy for the Polish revolt 1863 in France


Leaning towards prussia

Leaning towards Prussia

  • Prussia offered aid against the Polish rebels

  • Russia remained neutral during Prussian wars of unification

  • During the Franco-Prussian war 1870 Russia renounced the Black Sea clauses

  • The other powers opposed this in principle but notin action


Alignment with germany 1870 90

Alignment with Germany 1870-90

  • Bismarck alignes Prussia with Austria and Russia in the Dreikeiserbund.

    • A dubious friendship because of conflicting interest in the Balkans

  • 1877-78 Russia declares war on Turkey after the brutal Turkish suppression of the Bulgarian uprising

  • Treaty of San Stefano (march 78) created a big Bulgaria

    • However in

    • The Congress of Berlin in June 1878 Bulgaria was reduced and so also Russian influence in the Balkans


San stefano and berlin concress

San Stefano and Berlin concress


The end of german friendship

The end of German friendship

  • After the Congress in Berlin Germany became suspicious of Bismarck

  • The alliance lasted to 1890 when the new German emperor Wilhelm II refused to renew the Reinsurance treaty with RussiaRussia turns to France for alliance (entente 1894)

    • After Crimean war Russia had limited scope for influence in Europe and focused on expansion in Asia.

      • Alaska sold 1867

      • Foundation af Vladivostok 1861


Alexander ii policies

Alexander IIPolicies


Emancipation

Emancipation

  • Emancipation of 40 million serfs 1861

    • Peasant serfs received land but had to pay for it.

      • The government compensated the landowners with government bonds but the peasants paid redemption to the state for 49 years

      • The Mir, the peasant commune was responsible for these payments.

      • The landowner kept one third of the land, usually the best

      • The mir could repartition land


Zemstvos

Zemstvos

  • Assemblies for local government that replaced landlord government

  • Elected assemblies but still dominated by landlords.

  • Responsible for administering

    • Schools, public health, poor relief, roads.

  • Alexander turned down suggestions for national Zemstvo of Zemstvos


Military and educational reform

Military and educational reform

  • Conscription reduced from 25 years to 6

  • Universal military service by draw

  • Military service no longer punishment for crimes

  • Education liberalized, increased number of university students and liberalization of curriculum, 2000 women in univ. 1881

  • Gymnasiums founded (history not allowed)

  • Zemstvos allowed to open primary schools


Economic reform

Economic reform

  • Railway building 700-14000 miles 1855 to 1881.

  • Encouraged grain export with success

  • Establishment of banks encouraged.

  • Settlement limitation on Jews lifted,

    • They can trade and work as artisans everywhere in Russia


The radical opposition

The radical opposition

  • Alexanders II reforms raised hopes but he was not ready to go further

    • Typical dilemma of the reformer, you can not satisfy both the liberals and the conservatives

    • The intelligentsia: a critically thinking minority

      • Blended the ideas of slavophiles and westernisers

      • Wanted some kind of a unique Russian freedom

      • Tended to be absolutists, wanted to find the “truth”

        • No compromises – tended to be fanatical


Opposition taking form in the 1860 s

Opposition taking form in the 1860’s

  • Bakunin – anarchy of the simple peasant

  • Herzen – Socialism based on the mir

  • Chernyshevsky –

    • What is to be done?

    • Fundamental change necessary

    • Democracy means individual freedom, self-government and a federal system


Alexander and the intelligentsia

Alexander and the intelligentsia

  • The Zemstvos called for a central Zemstvo

    • Alexander rejected the idea then

    • The intelligentsia had no outlet for their ideas in practical politics – had no influence

    • Many of them would have supported the Tsar

    • Now they became underground fanatics

    • Attempts on Alexanders live 1866 and 1867 made him more reactionary


Rise of terrorism

Rise of terrorism

  • The “Peoples Will” split out of Land and Liberty”.

    • Made repeated attempts on the Tsars life.

    • When PW killed him in March 1881 Alexander he had just given approval for a national assembly.

    • The new Tsar Alexander III was conservative and under influence of Pobedonostsev like his son Nicholas II.


Alexander iii

Alexander III

  • Influenced by the conservative Pobedonostsev

    • Autocracy agains democracy

    • Orthodox against other sects

    • Russian against other nationalities

  • Attempted to reinstate the influnce of the nobility and attack the Zemstvos

    • Limited franchise – 21 000 to 7000 in St. Petersburg

    • Raising tuition fees for universities

    • Illiteracy rate 79 % 1897!!

  • Pan-slavism becoming influential


Russification

Russification

  • Russian 45% of the population of the empire in 1897 (total pop. 125 mill.)

  • Confiscation of church property in Poland

  • University in Warsaw closed 1869

  • Russian as an administrative language

  • Similar attacks on Ukrainians, Tartars, Georgians.

  • Alexander III also attacked nations that had been loyal to the Tsar like the Finns, Baltics and Armenians.

  • Alexander also limited rights of Jews and pogroms were supported. Jews become socialists and Zionists


Nicholas ii 1894 1917

Nicholas II (1894-1917)

  • Industrial progress occurred during his reign, but urban & rural conditions remained miserable and the population was on the verge of revolution.

    • Serge Witte (1892-1903) great finance minister who thrust Russia towards industrialization

  • 1905: Russia lost the Russo-Japanese war.

  • 1905: Revolution occurred which included the Bloody Sunday massacre.

    • The czar was forced to accept the October Manifesto which created the Duma (pop-elected parliament w/ legislative power).


Nicholas continued

Nicholas, continued

  • Nicholas failed to uphold his promises made in the Oct. Manifesto and instead promoted more conservative policies under his chief agricultural advisor, Stolypin.

    • Stolypin was assassinated by rebels


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