Presented by: Sabar Nurohman, M.Pd. Magnetisme. Do you Know, How Electric Motor Work?. What is magnetism ? Magnetism is the properties and interactions of magnets
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Magnetism is the properties and interactions of magnets
The earliest magnets were found naturally in the mineral magnetite which is abundant the rock-type lodestone. These magnets were used by the ancient peoples as compasses to guide sailing vessels.
Magnets produce magnetic forces and have magnetic field lines
Magnets have two ends or poles, called north and south poles. At the poles of a magnet, the magnetic field lines are closer together.
Unlike poles of magnets attract each other and like poles of magnets repel.
The nickel iron core of the earth gives the earth a magnetic field much like a bar magnet.
Magnetic substances like iron, cobalt, and nickel are composed of small areas where the groups of atoms are aligned like the poles of a magnet. These regions are called domains. All of the domains of a magnetic substance tend to align themselves in the same direction when placed in a magnetic field. These domains are typically composed of billions of atoms.
Orstead: when an electric current passes through a wire a magnetic field is formed.
When an electric current is passed through a coil of wire wrapped around a metal core, a very strong magnetic field is produced. This is called an electromagnet.
We have seen how electricity can produce a magnetic field. but a magnetic field can also produce electricity! How?
What is electromagnetic induction?
Moving a loop of wire through a magnetic field produces an electric current. This is electromagnetic induction.
A generator is used to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy by electromagnetic induction.
Carefully study the next diagrams:
AC vs DC : What’s the difference?
Direct current is electrical current which comes from a battery which supplies a constant flow of electricity in one direction.
Alternating current is electrical current which comes from a generator. As the electromagnet is rotated in the permanent magnet the direction of the current alternates once for every revolution.
Go to this website and click the button for DC then for AC to visually see the difference between the two.
You can see that the DC source is a battery – current flows in one direction. The AC source is the generator and the current alternates once for each revolution.
A galvanometer is an electromagnet that interacts with a permanent magnet. The stronger the electric current passing through the electromagnet, the more is interacts with the permanent magnet.
Galvanometers are used as gauges in cars and many other applications.
The greater the current passing through the wires, the stronger the galvanometer interacts with the permanent magnet.
An electric motor is a device which changes electrical energy into mechanical energy.
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