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Social Work Research Opportunities at CDC. Lynda Doll, PhD Associate Director for Science National Center for Injury Prevention and Control [email protected] Don Lollar, EdD Senior Research Scientists National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities [email protected]

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Social Work Research

Opportunities

at CDC


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Lynda Doll, PhDAssociate Director for ScienceNational Center for Injury Prevention and [email protected]

Don Lollar, EdDSenior Research ScientistsNational Center on Birth Defects and Developmental [email protected]


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Goals for Session

  • Introduce CDC and its public health research

  • Examples of public health research at CDC: the Injury and Birth Defects Centers

  • Trends and challenges in public health research today

    QUESTIONS DISCUSSION


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CDC’s Structure

National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities

National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion

National Center for Environmental Health

National Center for Health Statistics

National Center for Infectious Disease

National Center for Injury Prevention and Control

National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

National Immunization Program

Epidemiology Program Office

Public Health Practice Program Office


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Public Health Research at CDC

1) Focuses on prevention

2) Links Science and Practice


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Research Continuum by Agency

Basic Applied

NIH CDC


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“The modern trend in academic circles is to

neglect the microorganism as it exists in the

outside world, in order to concentrate

on the “domesticated” microbes that can so

conveniently be handled in the chemist’s

flasks and test tubes.”

The Natural History of Infectious Diseases, 1962


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“Academic health centers need more balance in research...

They need faculty who are not just doing

research in the laboratory, but people

who can go out into the community and

conduct community-based

research to learn how to

apply the findings.”

Surgeon General David Satcher

National Press Club, 5/6/98



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Public health operates at the population level, targeting groups and communities rather than individuals.


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Top 10 Achievements of the 20th Century groups and communities rather than individuals.

1.

  • Vaccination

  • Healthier mothers and babies

  • Family planning

  • Safer and healthier foods

  • Fluoridation of drinking water

  • Control of infectious diseases

7.

  • Decline in deaths from heart disease and stroke

  • Recognition of tobacco use as a public health problem

  • Motor vehicle safety

  • Safer workplaces

2.

8.

3.

4.

9.

5.

10.

6.


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Public health research is research that is directly applicable to the prevention or control of diseases, conditions, or injuries


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Public applicable to the prevention or control of diseases, conditions, or injuries

Health

Approach

Reduce Injuries

Assure Widespread Use

Develop and test solutions

Define the Problem

Identify risk and protective factors


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Research to Practice Model applicable to the prevention or control of diseases, conditions, or injuries

Prevention Programs

Research

Findings

Research

Agenda


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Fetal Alcohol Syndrome applicable to the prevention or control of diseases, conditions, or injuriesPrevention Program

  • Studies of prevalence of FAS

  • Targeted media campaigns aimed at reducing alcohol-exposed pregnancies

  • Educational intervention studies in high risk women

  • Scientific Working Group for uniform diagnostic guidelines for FAS

  • FAS Regional Training Centers for care providers

  • Identify interventions to improve outcomes of children with FAS


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April 20, 1999: applicable to the prevention or control of diseases, conditions, or injuries

Columbine High School

Littleton, CO

High Profile School Shootings


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School-Associated Violent Deaths Study applicable to the prevention or control of diseases, conditions, or injuries

  • Study Objectives

    • Track the occurrence of these events

    • Identify common features of these events

    • Target interventions


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Prevention Works applicable to the prevention or control of diseases, conditions, or injuries


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Research Funding Mechanisms applicable to the prevention or control of diseases, conditions, or injuries

  • Grant – investigator initiated (PA)

  • Cooperative agreement -- shared research (RFA)

  • Contract – CDC directed. An acquisition of a product or service

  • Small business innovation research (SBIR)


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Peer Review Process applicable to the prevention or control of diseases, conditions, or injuries

  • An independent assessment of the scientific merit of research by peers who are scientists with knowledge and expertise equal to that of the researchers whose work they review.

  • Provide signed assurances that their assessments are free of any real or perceived conflicts of interest.


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CDC Research Announcements applicable to the prevention or control of diseases, conditions, or injuries

  • Annually: December --- May

  • Typically RFAs; some PAs

  • Announced in Federal Register and CDC’s

    Federal Solicitation Funding Brochure (FSFB)


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CDC Research Announcements applicable to the prevention or control of diseases, conditions, or injuries

  • Open 30 – 90 days

  • Applications similar to NIH

  • Follow directions/call CDC contact person

  • Funding: September 1st


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ATLANTA - BALTIMORE - BOSTON - DENVER - LOS ANGELES applicable to the prevention or control of diseases, conditions, or injuries


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Works to reduce morbidity, disability, mortality, and costs associated with injuries

National Center for Injury Prevention & Control


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Burden of Injury associated with injuries


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NCIPC associated with injuriesSupports Research and Programs

  • Violence Prevention

  • Unintentional Injury

  • Acute care, disability, and rehabilitation


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NCIPC Supports associated with injuries

  • Injury prevention programs

  • Surveillance systems

  • Extramural research programs (Investigator-initiated grants and cooperatives

  • 24 research centers

  • Intramural research programs


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NCIPC Core Funding associated with injuries

Core State Funding, FY01


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NCIPC Allocation of Resources–FY03 associated with injuries

Research

32.5%

Extramural

87%

Intramural

13%

Program

50.7%

Surveillance 11.7%

Other 5.1%


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NCIPC associated with injuriesFY03 Research Expenditures

  • Grants 38%

  • Research Centers 29%

  • Cooperative Agreements 25%

  • Research Contracts 8%


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Research Agenda associated with injuries

  • Developed with help from partners

  • Published in 2002

  • Focuses on research that will have public health impact in the relatively near future


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Research Agenda Objectives associated with injuries

  • Guide for funding decisions

  • Guide for extramural and intramural researchers

  • Guide for collaboration with other funding organizations


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Criteria for Research Priorities associated with injuries

  • Congruency with Agency and Center Mission

    • injury reduction through public health methods

  • Public Health Burden

  • Research Opportunity: preventability; timeliness; broad application; accessible populations

  • Near Term Impact


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The Phases of associated with injuries

Prevention Research

Diffusion

Studies

Efficacy and

Effectiveness

Studies

Developmental

Studies

Foundational

Research


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Home and Community Safety associated with injuries

  • Disseminate effective interventions

    • Fires

    • Falls

  • Evaluate interventions

    • Mass trauma events

    • Childhood falls

  • Understand the role of supervision


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Sports, Recreation & Exercise Safety associated with injuries

  • Disseminate effective interventions

    • Protective gear

    • Playground surfaces

  • Evaluate environmental, behavioral & regulatory interventions

  • Develop exposure data


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Transportation Safety associated with injuries

  • Disseminate or evaluate effectiveness of interventions

    • Alcohol & driving

    • Pedestrians

    • Teen drivers

    • Older drivers

    • Occupants

  • Evidence based policy formulation


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Intimate Partner & Sexual Violence and Child Maltreatment associated with injuries

  • Primary prevention by focusing on perpetration

  • Evaluate existing programs & strategies to disseminate

  • Develop new programs

  • Change social norms


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Suicidal Behavior associated with injuries

  • Public health vs. traditional mental health

  • Evaluate efficacy & effectiveness

    • Suicide (Extant & New)

    • Other violence

  • Disseminate effective programs

  • Identify risk factors


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Youth Violence associated with injuries

  • Disseminate strategies of effective programs (adoption, costs)

  • Evaluate program (and cost) effectiveness

    • Parenting

  • Identify modifiable risk and protective factors

    • Perpetration

    • Victimization

    • Community & Sociocultural

  • Clarify relationship of youth and other violence


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Acute Care, Disability & Rehabilitation associated with injuries

  • Evaluate the effectiveness of clinical prevention services in acute care settings

  • TBI & SCI

    • Special population epidemiology

    • Consequences,services & costs

    • Secondary condition prevention

  • Determine costs/benefits of trauma care systems


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Research Agenda Crosscutting Priorities associated with injuries

  • Evaluate methods for translating research findings into programs and policies

  • Evaluate the effectiveness of programs

    • Parenting

    • Alcohol

  • Identify the costs and consequences of injury

  • Build research infrastructure


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FY04 Research Announcements associated with injuries

  • Grants

  • Cooperative Agreements

  • Contracts

  • SBIR


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Annual Research Grants Announcements associated with injuries

  • Violence

  • Acute care, rehabilitation and disability

  • Biomechanics

  • Unintentional injury prevention

  • Injury research centers

  • Youth violence centers

  • New investigators

  • Dissertations


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For Information on the Research Agenda or Research Funding

  • www.cdc.gov/ncipc

    • “What’s new”

    • “Grants and Funding”



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The Futures Initiative

Workgroup onPublic Health Research


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CDC’s Applied Public Health Research (APHR) Agenda

  • Fast Track Priorities for FY04 (DEC)

  • FY05 Research Agenda developed over 12- 18 months

  • Focus on crosscutting investigator initiated research


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Trends at CDC

  • Increase # behavioral/social scientists

  • Broad array beh/soc scdisciplines

  • Culture + social/environmental + individual factors

  • Expanded set of methods


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Trends at CDC

  • Increase in community participatory research

  • Increase in community-based research

  • Increased study of social/community-level factors: social networks, social determinants of health, social capital, livability

  • Increase in community-level and multi-level intervention research


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Trends at CDC

  • Increased emphasis:

    • research synthesis

    • translation of research to practice

    • program evaluation

    • researchers in the field


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Trends at CDC

  • Increased awareness that mental and physical health and injuries are not easily separated

  • Topics: behavioral and psychological consequences of abuse, terrorism, witnessing violence


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Trends in Research

  • Intervention/dissemination research

  • Cross-cutting research—reduce “silos”

  • Big Science

  • Translation of research to practice

  • Support for researcher training


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Trends in Research

  • Accountability

    • Products

    • Observable, near term outcomes: behavioral, systems, health

    • Data/stories about impact of research


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Trends in Research

Expansion areas:

  • Health disparities

  • Socioeconomic determinants

  • Prevention communication

  • Health systems

  • Global infrastructure development


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