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Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables. Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables. Nutrients Substances obtained from food that provide nourishment. Micronutrients. Macronutrients. Energy producing. Protective. Carbohydrates, fats, proteins. Vitamins, minerals.

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Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables

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Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables l.jpg

Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables


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Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables

Nutrients

Substances obtained from food that provide nourishment

Micronutrients

Macronutrients

Energy producing

Protective

Carbohydrates, fats,

proteins

Vitamins, minerals


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Major nutrients in foods

Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables

  • Water

  • Carbohydrates

  • Proteins

  • Fats

  • Vitamins

  • Minerals

  • Bioactive compounds


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Substrate of biological reactions or acts as the matrix or vehicle in which these reactions take place

Regulates the temperature and pH in the human body

Maintains cell and tissue integrity

Water

Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables


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After water, carbohydrates are the main components of fruits and vegetables and represent more than 90 % of their dry matter

Classified into three groups

Monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, arabinose, xylose)

Oligosaccharides (sucrose, maltose, raffinose, stachyose)

Polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, hemicellulose)

RDA for carbohydrates is 130 g/ day, except in cases of pregnancy (175 g/day) and lactation (210 g/day)

Carbohydrates

Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables


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Necessary for building and repairing of body tissues

Act as transport nutrients

Act as enzymes and hormones

Supply 4Kcal/ g energy

Help in recovering from infections and diseases (strenghten immune system)

RDA for protein is 34-56 g/ day, depending upon age and sex

During pregnancy and lactation it is 71 g/ day

Functions of proteins

Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables


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Supply energy 9 Kcal/g

Essential for absorption of fat soluble vitamins such as vitamin A, D, E, K

Functions of fats

Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables


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Vitamins

Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables

Fat soluble vitamins: Vitamin A, D, E, K

Water soluble vitamins: Vitamin B complex, C

Cont….


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Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables


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Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables

  • Important Minerals

  • Calcium

  • Phosphorus

  • Iron

  • Sodium

  • Potassium

  • Magnesium

  • Zinc

  • Copper


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Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables


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Major Phytochemicals

Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables

Bioactive Compounds or Phytochemicals

These are substances present in foods at low levels that may have a role in health maintenance in humans

Have antioxidant properties

Carotenoids: Lycopene, Lutein, Zeaxanthin, -carotene

Polyphenolics: Flavonoids, Flavones, Anthocyanine

Glucosinolate: Sulphoraphane, Indole-3-Carbinol

Thiosulphides: Alliin, Methiin, Ethiin

Dietary fiber: Lignin, Pectin, Cellulose, Dietary fiber

Miscellaneous : Selenium, Phytosterol & stanol, Saponins


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Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables

Nutritional value of raw potato (with peel) per 100 g

(Source: USDA National Nutrient Database)


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Health benefits of potato

Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables

  • Potato is a wholesome food and a person won't be hungry at all, for some hours, after eating potatoes. It contains carbohydrate, which is a good source of energy. They facilitate easy digestion. So, if you are suffering from diarrhea, eating potato is best!

  • The energy produced through potato gets stored as glycogen in muscle and liver and functions as a readily available energy during prolonged, strenuous exercise. That’s why; it is an important part of players’ diet.


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Health benefits of potato

Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables

  • Potatoes are rich source of vitamin C, vitamin B6, copper, manganese, and dietary fiber.

  • Potatoes help to improve resistance to heart attack and stroke. The potassium content, available in potatoes, helps in maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance in the body cells.

  • Raises the glucose level in the blood and over intake may cause obesity, hence it is not recommended for obese or diabetic people.


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Nutritive value of raw mango (per 100g)

Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables

(Source: USDA National Nutrient Database)


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Health benefits of mango

Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables

  • Many Indians consider the mango to be a blood builder, and good for anaemia due to its high iron content.

  • It is also said to be good for alleviating menstrual and muscular cramps. The fruit has a high potassium and magnesium content.


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Health benefits of mango

Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables

  • Its papain-like enzyme is good for digestion and purifies the intestines. Mango juice has also been proven to kill certain viruses. It also has good fibre, beta-carotene, vitamins C, B1, B2, B3, B6, zinc and calcium.

  • The fruit is also effective in cooking as a meat tenderiser and flavour enhancer.


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Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables

Nutritive value of grapes per 100 g

Grapes, red or green

(European type, Thompson seedless)

(Source: USDA National Nutrient Database)


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Health benefits of grapes

Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables

  • Rich source of vitamin A, C, B6 and folate in addition to essential minerals like potassium, calcium, iron, phosphorus, magnesium and selenium.

  • Contain flavanoids that are very powerful antioxidants which can reduce the damage caused by free radicals and slacken ageing.

  • Considered as laxative food owing to their organic acid, sugar and cellulose


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Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables

Nutritive value of banana per 100 g

(Source: USDA National Nutrient Database)


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Health benefits of banana

Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables

  • One banana has 11% of RDA of dietary fibre and only about 108 calories which helps to maintain healthy bowel movement.

  • Has high amount of potassium (13 % of RDA) that can help lower blood pressure, which helps to reduce incidence of atherosclerosis and heart attack.

  • Rich in vitamin B6 (34% of RDA) which helps to maintain proper. functioning of nervous system, production of white blood cells and plays pivotal role in cell formation.


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Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables

Nutritional value of tomato per 100g

(Source: USDA National Nutrient Database)


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Health benefits of tomato

Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables

  • Contain ‘lycopene’ pigment which is a vital anti-oxidant that helps to fight against cancerous cell formation as well as other kinds of health complications and diseases.

  • When tomato products are heat processed the bioavailability of the Lycopene actually increases rather than the anticipated decrease.

  • It is a rich source of vitamins and minerals. A single tomato can provide 40% of the daily requirement of vitamin C which is a natural antioxidant.

  • High potassium helps to maintain nerve health, whereas high iro helps to maintain blood health. Tomatoes are rich in vitamin K which plays a major role in blood clotting.

  • It also improves eye health and prevents hypertension and urinary tract infections


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Let us sum up

Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables

  • Food is composed of nutrients: macronutrients and micronutrients classified according to the amount required for a healthy body.

  • Fruits and vegetables are called ‘Protective foods’.

  • They are a rich source of sugars, vitamins, minerals and bioactive compounds which help to maintain proper functioning of the body.


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