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From Revolution to Napoleon… Europe won’t be the same. . Le French Revolution. “Chapter 7 – French Revolution”. Social inequality & economic problems led to the French Revolution. Marks a major change in Europe. French Revolution The BIG Idea. Louis XVI (16 th )
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“Chapter 7 – French Revolution”
Marks a major change in Europe
The BIG Idea
Grandson of Louis XV (15th) (Ruled – 1774-1793)
Louis XV (15th)
Great Grandson of Louis XIV (14th) (Ruled – 1715-1774)
1stEstate – clergy, church officials
-paid no taxes
2nd Estate – nobles
-paid no taxes
3rd Estate – commoners (peasants and bourgeoisie)
-paid the taxes
bourgeoisie– middle class that includes educated professionals: doctors, lawyers, businessmen, etc.
1st– poor economic condition (too much debt, not enough taxes)
2nd – rising prices (especially bread due to several years of bad harvests)
3rd – Enlightenment ideals - the bourgeoisie (middle class) are led to question the social structure/power
1789 – Estates General – (French Parliament or Congress) meeting of all 3 estates. Each estate is represented by members of their estate.
Louis XVI is forced to convene (meet) for the first time since 1614!
The 3rd Estate demanded a constitutional government, the abolition of tax exemptions for the nobility & clergy, and a guarantee of basic rights for all.
The 3rd Estate also demanded that each deputy representative have a vote but Louis XVI refused. Instead, each estate voted as a group, so the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd each got 1 vote. How do you think that went?
The new government’s first problem?
Their second major problem?
The National Assembly’s final problem?
The Big Man cometh… okay, little man – Big Attitude. Napoleon seizes power
born in 1769 in Corsica – Napoleone di Buonaparte
sent to military school at age 10
commissioned as a lieutenant in the French army at 16
initially not well-liked by his men
supreme confidence in himself
brigadier general and eventually commander of French armies in Italy
returns to France a conquering hero
Consul of France
First Consul for Life
Emperor of the French
King of Italy
Even after all they had fought for in the French Revolution, why do you think many French people did not have a problem with Napoleon having so much power?
Europe in 1811.Colors indicate (from dark blue to light blue) :- Dark blue - French Empire,- Light Blue - French Satellite States,- Blue grey - Countries submitted into applying the Continental System
Establishes peace with Catholic Church
Catholicism - religion of the majority of the French people
Pope agreed not to ask for the return of lands seized during the revolution
Spreads religious toleration through empire
Civil Code – Napoleonic Code
Single law code for the entire nation
Preserved some gains of revolution, however lost some others.
Women were now “less equal than men”
He cut off all trade between Britain and the rest of Europe.
Napoleon thought that this would cripple Britain.
However, the plan backfired when the British formed a blockade to stop all French imports.
This hurt France and angered Napoleon’s Allies
Napoleon misjudged the power of nationalism
French were hated oppressors, aroused nationalism
The spread of the principles of nationalism showed conquered nations what a nation in arms could do.
France lost over 300,000 men trying to wipe out the guerillas of Spain and Germany.
Napoleon invaded Russia because the Tsar refused to stop selling grain to Britain.
He expected his Grand Army to destroy the smaller Russian force.
However, the Russians retreated towards Moscow and burned everything as they went to keep the army from finding food.
The worst winter in one hundred years hit Russia.
The Russians completely burned Moscow.
Napoleon lost over 400,000 of 600,000 men in his retreat.
Britain forms a Grand Alliance to retake all the land of the French empire
Within a year the allies defeat Napoleon
exile Napoleon to the island of Elba
The old monarchy was restored to France in the person of Louis XVIII, brother of Louis XVI.
In 1815, Napoleon slips back into France from Elba.
thousands rejoined Napoleon’s army.
British and Prussian armies rushed towards France, Napoleon met them at Waterloo.
After a long battle, Napoleon’s troops retreated
This ended Napoleon’s last bid for power
The British exiled Napoleon to the island of St. Helena and Napoleon died six years later.
When Napoleon escapes from the island of Elba and tries to regain power, the people of France must decide follow him again or to stick with the new king.
Set up a chart in your notebook:
Good things about Napoleon’s rule Bad things about Napoleon’s rule
List at least four examples under each column.
finish one of the sentences in a short paragraph:
I would support Napoleon’s return to power because…
I would not support Napoleon’s return to power because…
Neighboring monarchies (the other countries in Europe) fear the French Revolution will spread and that their people will want the same freedoms