Chapter 15 Managing Communication
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Chapter 15 Managing Communication







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MGMT Chuck Williams. Chapter 15 Managing Communication. Designed & Prepared by B-books, Ltd. What Is Communication?. After reading these sections, you should be able to:. explain the role that perception plays in communication and communication problems.
Chapter 15 Managing Communication

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Slide 1

MGMT

Chuck Williams

Chapter 15Managing Communication

Designed & Prepared byB-books, Ltd.

Slide 2

What Is Communication?

After reading these sections, you should be able to:

  • explain the role that perception plays in communication and communication problems.

  • describe the communication process and the various kinds of communication in organizations.

Slide 3

Basic Perception

Process

Perception

Problems

Perceptions

of Others

Self-Perception

Perception and Communication Problems

1

Slide 4

Perception

The process by which individuals attend to, organize, interpret, and retain information from their environments.

Perception Filters

The personality-, psychology-, or experience-based differences that influence people to ignore or pay attention to particular stimuli.

Basic Perception Process

1.1

Slide 5

Stimulus

Stimulus

Stimulus

Filter

Perceptual

Attention

Filter

Perceptual

Organization

Perceptual

Interpretation

Filter

Perceptual

Retention

Filter

Basic Perception Process

1.1

Slide 6

Perception Problems

  • Selective perception

    • notice and accept stimuli which are consistent with our values and beliefs

    • ignore inconsistent stimuli

  • Closure

    • tendency to fill in the gaps when information is missing

    • we assume that what we don’t know is consistent with what we do know

1.2

Slide 7

Perception of Others

  • Attribution Theory

    • we have a need to understand and explain the causes of other people’s behavior

  • General reasons to explain behavior

    • Internal attribution

      • the behavior was voluntary or under their control

    • External attribution

      • the behavior was involuntary and beyond their control

1.3

Slide 8

Defensive

Bias

The tendency for people to perceive themselves as personally and situationally similar to someone who ishaving difficulty.

FundamentalAttributionError

The tendency to ignore external causesof behavior and to attribute other people’s actions to internal causes.

Attribution Bias and Error

1.3

Slide 9

Attribution Bias and Error

1.3

Slide 10

Self-Serving Bias

The tendency to overestimate our value by attributing successes to ourselves (internal causes) and attributing failures to others or the environment (external causes).

Self-Perception

1.4

Slide 11

CommunicationProcess

FormalCommunicationChannels

NonverbalCommunication

InformalCommunicationChannels

Coaching and Counseling

Kinds of Communication

2

Slide 12

The Interpersonal Communication Process

Sender

Receiver

Message

that was

Understood

Message to be

Conveyed

Feedback to Sender

N

o

i

s

e

N

o

i

s

e

N

o

i

s

e

N

o

i

s

e

Decode

Message

Encode

Message

Receive

Message

Transmit

Message

Communication Channel

2.1

Slide 13

The Communication Process

Noise occurs if:

  • The sender is unsure what message to communicate

  • The message is not clearly encoded

  • The wrong channel is chosen

  • The message is improperly decoded

  • The receiver lacks experience or time

2.1

Slide 14

The Communication Process

Meanings of the Word Fine

  • Penalty

  • Excellence

  • Tight

  • Small

  • Pure

  • Flimsy

  • Okay

2.1

Slide 15

Formal Communication Channels

The system of formal communication channels includes:

  • Downward communication

    • top down

  • Upward communication

    • bottom up

  • Horizontal

    • within a level

2.2

Slide 16

Improving Formal Communication

  • Decrease reliance on downward communication

  • Increase chances for upward communication

  • Encourage much greater use of horizontal communication

  • Be aware of communication problems

2.2

Slide 17

  • Sending too many messages

  • Issuing contradictory messages

  • Hurriedly communicating vague, unclear messages

  • Issuing messages indicating management’s low regard for lower-level workers

Downward

  • Risk of telling upper management about problems

  • Managers reacting angrily and defensively to problems

  • Few opportunities for workers to contact upper levels of management

Upward

  • Management discouraging or punishing horizontal communication

  • Managers and workers not given time or opportunity for horizontal communication

  • Not enough opportunities or channels for lower-level workers to engage in horizontal communication

Horizontal

Common Problems with Downward, Upward, and Horizontal Communication

2.2

Slide 18

Informal Communication Channels

  • Transmitting messages outside the formal communication channels

  • The Grapevine

  • Highly accurate

    • information is timely

    • senders seek feedback

    • accuracy can be verified

2.3

Slide 19

Beyond the Book

Informal Communication Channels

Slide 20

Informal Communication Channels

2.3

Slide 21

Managing Organizational Grapevines

  • Don’t withhold information from it

  • Don’t punish those who use it

  • Embrace the grapevine and keep employees informed

  • Use it as a source of information

2.3

Slide 22

Dealing with Internet Gripe Sites

1. Correct misinformation

2. Don’t take angry comments personally

3. Give your name and contact number

4. Hold a town meeting to discuss issues

5. Set up anonymous discussion forums

Informal Communication Channels

2.3

Slide 23

Coaching and Counseling

  • Coaching

    • communicating with someone for the direct purpose of improving the person’s performance

  • Counseling

    • communicating with someone about non-job related issues

    • issues may be affecting a person’s performance

2.4

Slide 24

Counseling

Financial

Services

Child Care

Employee

Assistance

Programs

Pet Care

Senior Care

Health

Lifestyles

Legal

Services

Employee Assistance Programs

2.4

Slide 25

Beyond the Book

Onsite Health Care

  • Employees are bearing an increasing share of their employee-sponsored health care, an average of $1,806, or 22% of their premium, in 2008.

  • Some companies, however, are sponsoring on-site health care facilities where employees can be seen for check-ups, prescription drugs, and primary care without missing much work.

  • Andrew Gold, executive director of benefits planning at Pitney Bowes, says that the company saves $1 in health care costs and gains $1 in productivity for every $1 spent on the in-house clinic.

Source: M. P. McQueen, “Workers Get Health Care at the Office,” The Wall Street Journal, 18 November 2008, D1.

Slide 26

Nonverbal Communication

  • Any communication that doesn’t involve words

  • Kinesics

    • movements of the body and face

  • Paralanguage

    • the pitch, tone, rate, volume, and speaking pattern of a person’s voice

2.5

Slide 27

How to Improve Communication

After reading these sections, you should be able to:

  • explain how managers can manage effectiveone-on-one communication.

  • describe how managers can manage effectiveorganization-wide communication.

Slide 28

How to Improve Communication

Choosing the Right Communication Medium

Being a good listener

Giving effective feedback

3

Slide 29

  • Communication Medium

  • The method used to deliver an oral orwritten message.

  • Oral communication

  • Written communication

Choosing the Right Communication Medium

3.1

Slide 30

Listening

Active

Listening

Hearing

versus

Listening

Empathetic

Listening

3.2

Slide 31

Becoming an Active Listener

  • Clarify responses

    • Ask questions to clear up ambiguities

  • Paraphrase responses

    • Restate the speaker’s comments in your own words

  • Summarize responses

    • Review the speaker’s main points

3.2

Slide 32

Becoming an Empathetic Listener

  • Show your desire to understand

    • Listen first

    • Talk about what’s important to the other

  • Reflect feelings

    • Focus on the emotional part of the message

    • More than just restating words

3.2

Slide 33

Responses

  • Could you explain that again?

  • I don’t understand what you mean.

  • I’m confused. Would you run through that again?

  • I’m not sure how ….

Clarifying

  • If I understand you correctly ….

  • So your perspective is that ….

  • In other words ….

  • Tell me if I’m wrong, but what you’re saying is ….

Paraphrasing

  • Let me summarize ….

  • Okay, your main concerns are ….

  • Thus far, you’ve discussed ….

  • To recap what you’ve said ….

Summarizing

Clarifying, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing

3.2

Slide 34

Giving Feedback

Two types of feedback:

Constructive

Destructive

3.3

Slide 35

Making Feedback Constructive

  • Give immediate feedback

    • Don’t delay feedback

    • Discuss performance while the memory is vivid

  • Make feedback specific

    • Focus on definite behavior and time-frame

    • Make sure behavior was controllable

  • Make feedback problem-oriented

    • Focus on behavior not personality

3.3

Slide 36

Beyond the Book

Improving Cross-Cultural Communication

1. Familiarize yourself with a culture’s work norms

2. Know whether a culture is emotionally affective or neutral

3. Understand terms and attitudes toward time

Slide 37

Beyond the Book

A Comparison of French and American Views of Work

Slide 38

Beyond the Book

Affective and Neutral Cultures

In Affective Cultures, People…

  • Reveal thoughts and feelings through verbal and nonverbal communication

  • Express and show feelings of tension

  • Let their emotions flow easily, intensely, and without inhibition

  • Admire heated, animated, and intense expressions of emotion

  • Are used to touching, gesturing, and showing strong emotions through facial expressions

  • Make statements with emotion

Slide 39

Beyond the Book

Affective and Neutral Cultures

In Neutral Cultures, People…

  • Don’t reveal what they are thinking or feeling

  • Hide tension and only show it accidentally in face or posture

  • Suppress emotions, leading to occasional “explosions”

  • Admire remaining cool, calm, and relaxed

  • Resist touching, gesturing, and strong emotions through facial expressions

  • Often make statements in an unexpressive manner

Slide 40

Beyond the Book

Monochronic Cultures

People in Monochronic Cultures…

  • Do one thing at a time

  • Concentrate on the job

  • Take time commitments seriously

  • Are committed to the job

  • Adhere religiously to plans

  • Show respect for private property

  • Emphasize promptness

  • Are accustomed to short-term relationships

Slide 41

Beyond the Book

Polychronic Cultures

People in Polychronic Cultures…

  • Do many things at once

  • Are highly distractible and subject to interruptions

  • Meet time commitments only if possible without extreme measures

  • Are committed to people

  • Change plans easily and often

  • Are more concerned with relationships than with privacy

  • Frequently borrow and lend things

  • Vary promptness by the relationship

  • Tend to build lifetime relationships

Slide 42

Beyond the Book

Cross-Cultural Temporal Concepts

  • Appointment time

    • how punctual you must be

  • Schedule time

    • time when projects should be completed

  • Discussion time

    • how much time should be spentin discussions

  • Acquaintance time

    • how much small-talk is required

Slide 43

Managing Organization-Wide Communication

Improving

Transmission:Getting theMessage Out

Improving

Reception

4

Slide 44

Improving Transmission

email

online discussion forums

televised / videotapedspeeches and conferences

corporate talk shows

broadcast voice mail

Getting the Message Out

4.1

Slide 45

Beyond the Book

Email Ettiquette

  • E-mail is the vehicle for any number of communication faux pas: being abusive, “cc”ing the wrong people, discussing sensitive topics.

  • How to use it well? (1) Think about tone and don’t respond when you’re angry. (2) Send only to the appropriate people. (3) Assume anyone can read what you write. (4) Review what you wrote before you send.

    Source: G. A. Olson, “E-Mails are Forever,” The Chronicle of Higher Education, 15 December 2008.

Slide 46

KnowledgeAudit

Online

Directory

DiscussionGroups onInternet

RewardInformationSharing

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Step 4

Establishing Online Discussion Forums

4.1

Slide 47

Improving Reception

  • Company hotlines

  • Survey feedback

  • Informal meetings

  • Surprise visits

  • Blogs

4.2


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