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2. Network Media—Copper Core Cable. Grades. Labs. Network Media. Analog and Digital Signals. Analog signal —electronic signal that varies in values Series of slopes. Analog and Digital Signals. Digital signal —electronic signal that has discrete values.

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Network Media—Copper Core Cable

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2

Network Media—Copper Core Cable


Grades


Labs


Network Media


Analog and Digital Signals

Analog signal—electronic signal that varies in values

Series of slopes


Analog and Digital Signals

Digital signal—electronic signal that has discrete values.

Rises and falls sharply at right angles; on and off, high and low


Frequency

How electronic signals are measured


Attenuation

Loss of signal strength

All signals degenerate, lose amplitude

Amplitude - The maximum voltage of electronic signal

Amplitude can be increased with an amplifier


Latency

Amount of time it takes for signal to travel from source to destination

If latency exceeds its Time to Live (TTL), it will be removed from network


Data Transmission

Bandwidth - measurement of the network media’s ability to carry data.

Higher bandwidth = more data carried

Measured in hertz (Hz)


Interference

Undesired electromagnetic signal, distorts

Can be picked up from motors, fluorescent lights, transformers…

“noise”


Interference

Crosstalk

Interference from neighboring conductors inside the wire’s jacket

Unwanted signals need to be removed, or filtered


Crosstalk Measurements

Measured in decibels (dB)

A unit of measurement that expresses the relationship of power between two forces

Near-End Crosstalk (NEXT)

A measurement of reflected loss at the near end or input end of a cable.

Far-End Crosstalk (FEXT)

A measurement of reflected loss at the far end or out put end of a cable


Crosstalk Measurements

Equal Level Far-End Crosstalk (ELFEXT)

A measurement calculated by measuring the effects of attenuation from the far end crosstalk measurement

Alien Crosstalk (AXT)

A measurement of noise introduced outside the cable jacket, typically caused by other network cables in close proximity.


Index Cards

1. Draw a large plus on one side, a large minus on the other

2. + side: write down the term you understand best. Explain in your own words what this term consists of.

3. – side: write down term you feel unclear about and questions you have about it

4. Share your plus and minus with 2-3 classmates


Data Transmission

Baseband—One digital signal

Data that is transmitted in digital signal using the entire bandwith of cable

Broadband—Multiple analog signals

Transmitting data in the form of analog signals at the same time.


Data Transmission

Simplex—One direction Communication

Example: Television station to television

Full-duplex—Bi-directional and simultaneous communication between two devices.

Example: Communication via telephone

Half-duplex— Bi-directional communication that can only occur one direction at a time.

Example: Communication via Walkie-talkie


Data Transmission (Cont.)


Direct and Alternating Current

Alternating current alternates between negative and positive charge

Direct current is in one steady direction


Resistance and Impedance

The longer the conductor, the greater the resistance (DC) and impedance (AC)

Impedance increases as frequency increases

Impedance decreases quality of data


Reflected Loss

Transmitted in full-duplex mode

Great amounts can disrupt communication


Crosstalk

Type of interference

Occurs when one pair of conductors imposes a signal on another pair of parallel conductors

Created by magnetic induction

An electrical phenomenon of current jumping from one conductor to another

Network conductors, such as twisted pair, limit the effects by reducing contact between conductors


Copper Core Cable

Describes the conductors diameter

AWG rating


Plenum-Rated Copper Core Cable


Coaxial Cable


Coaxial Connectors


Coaxial Cable Classifications


Twisted Pair

Consists of four pairs of twisted conductors

First introduced by telephone company

Seven categories

Classified as UTP (unshielded twisted pair) and STP (shielded twisted pair)


UTP Cable


Twisted Pair Categories


Twisted Pair Categories (Cont.)


IEEE 802.3 Classifications


Terminating Resistor

Must be electrically grounded at one end to prevent interference


10BaseT 100-Meter Rule

The 100-meter length ensures that the cable on the network should not exceed 100 meters

Repeater may be used to extend distance


Hub Daisy-Chain Configuration


Hub Cascade Configuration


IEEE 802.3 Media Access

CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) ensures data delivery

Workstation listens for traffic on network

When network is silent, workstation transmits data

If another workstation transmits data at same time, collision occurs

Both workstations wait before retransmitting


IEEE 802.3 Wiring Connections

568A and 568B—Main twisted pair cable termination standards

Straight-through and crossover—Common classifications of assembly

Automatic Medium Dependent Interface Crossover (Auto-MDIX)—New standard introduced by HP


IEEE 802.3 Wiring Connections


RJ-45 Connector

Contains eight pins inside plastic housing

Conductor pairs are untwisted so that each conductor can be inserted into one of the pin areas


Rollover Cable

Uses an RJ-45 connector on each cable end

Cisco rollover cable uses an RJ-45 on one end and a DB-9 serial cable on the other


Applied Networking

What would happen if you used a crossover cable to connect access port 2X to a workstation?


Applied Networking

On the hub shown, the cable connected to the Uplink port is a straight-through cable. If you were connecting this hub to another hub, would you connect the cable to the other hub’s Uplink port or to one of its access ports?


Applied Networking

You have added a third workstation and a hub to an existing network of two workstations. The original workstations were connected to each other via a crossover cable. For all three workstations to communicate, you have connected them to the hub. However, when the network is running, you notice that a light above one of the access ports on the hub is lit red. What could be the problem?


Power over Ethernet (PoE)

Cable used must be Cat 5 or better

Two pairs of cables used for network communication, one pair used for electrical power

Common PoE application is building and area security when electrical power is not available


IEEE 802.5

Describes Token Ring networks

Uses the token passing media access method

Configured in a ring topology


Token Ring Network Using Twisted Pair Cable


Wiring Faults

Data cannot reach its destination

Short

Open

Ground


Twisted Pair Wiring Fault

Common problems that can occur when installing connectors on twisted pair cables

Reversed pair

Crossed pair

Split pair


Applied Networking

An analog signal produces 1000 cycles per second. What is the frequency of this signal?

1000


Review

A digital signal produces 200 cycles per second. What is the frequency of this signal?

200


Review

Name three cable-based media types.

Coaxial cable

Twisted pair cable

Fiber-optic cable


Review

Which of the following electronic signals are used by wireless devices?

Electrical energy

Infrared

Light waves

Microwave

Radio waves

B, D, and E


Review

Which of the following describes a digital signal?

A discrete value that is either on or off

A series of slopes

Rises and falls sharply at right angles

0 volts or 5 volts

Varies in value

A, C, D


Review

For a 10 Gigabyte Ethernet network that you anticipate having a maximum segment length of 100 meters, which twisted pair cable type will you use?

Cat 5

Cat 5e

Cat 6

Cat 6a

D. Cat 6a


Review

For a gigabyte Ethernet network that you anticipate having a maximum segment length of 100 meters, which twisted pair cable type will you use?

Cat 5

Cat 5e

Cat 6

Cat 6a

B. Cat 5e


Review

The opposition to direct current is _____.

Crosstalk

Impedance

Reflected loss

Resistance

D. Resistance


Review

The opposition to alternating current is _____.

Crosstalk

Impedance

Reflected loss

Resistance

B. Impedance


Review

The amount of signal reflected from the end of a cable is _____.

Crosstalk

Impedance

Reflected loss

Resistance

C. Reflected loss


Review

Interference that comes from neighboring conductors inside a wire’s insulating jacket is called _____.

Crosstalk

Impedance

Reflected loss

Resistance

A. Crosstalk


Review

To add a workstation to an existing 100BaseTX Ethernet network, which twisted pair cable type will you use to connect the workstation to the existing network switch?

Cat 5

Cat 5e

Cat 6

Cat 6a

A. Cat 5


Review

The connection in the illustration is using the _____ standard.

568A

568B

B. 568B


Review

The connection in the illustration is using the _____ standard.

568A

568B

A. 568A


Review

A straight-through patch cable has two of its twisted pair conductors not making contact with the RJ-45 pins. What type of cable fault will occur when the patch cable is installed?

Ground

Open

Short

B. Open


Review

An F-connector is attached at each end of a stranded core RG-6 cable. At one of the cable ends, many of the cable core strands came unraveled and are making contact with the connector and braided shield. What type of cable fault will occur when this cable is installed?

Ground

Open

Short

A. Ground


Review

The _____ method of transmission uses the entire bandwidth of a cable.

Baseband

Broadband

A. Baseband


Review

The _____ method of transmission can transmit several analog signals at the same time.

Baseband

Broadband

B. Broadband


Review

Which of the following is an example of full-duplex communication?

Communicating using a Push-to-Talk telephone system

Communicating using cell phones

A satellite delivering a television program to a satellite dish

B. Communicating using cell phones


Review

Which of the following is an example of simplex communication?

Communicating using a Push-to-Talk telephone system

Communicating using cell phones

A satellite delivering a television program to a satellite dish

C. A satellite delivering a television program to a satellite dish


Review

Which of the following is an example of half-duplex communication?

Communicating using a Push-to-Talk telephone system

Communicating using cell phones

A satellite delivering a television program to a satellite dish

A. Communicating using a Push-to-Talk telephone system


Glossary

  • 1000BaseCX

    • An IEEE802.3 classification that specifies a data rate of 1 Gbps, the use of Category 5 cable, a maximum segment length of 25 meters, and a minimum segment length of 0.6 meters.

  • 1000BaseT

    • An IEEE 802.3 classification that specifies a 1-Gbps data rate using all four pairs of Category 5e cable, a maximum segment length of 100 meters, and a minimum segment length of 0.6 meters. Also known as Gigabit Ethernet.


Glossary

  • 100BaseT4

    • An IEEE 802.3 classification that specifies the use of all four pairs of Category 3, 4, or 5 cable and a data rate of 100 Mbps.

  • 100BaseTX

    • An IEEE 802.3 classification that specifies the use of Category 5e cable on pairs 1 and 2 only. It is configured in a star topology and has a data rate of 100 Mbps.


Glossary

  • 10Base2

    • An IEEE 802.3 classification that specifies the use of RG-58 (thinnet) cable and a data rate of 10 Mbps.

  • 10Base5

    • An IEEE802.3 classification that specifies the use of RG-8 (thicknet) and a data rate of 10 Mbps.

  • 10BaseT

    • An IEEE 802.3 classification that specifies the use of Category 3, 4, and 5 UTP cable. It is arranged in a star topology, follows the 100-meter rule, and has a data rate of 10 Mbps.


Glossary

  • 10GBaseT

    • An IEEE 802.3 classification that specifies a data rate of 10 Gbps at a distance of 100 meters using unshielded Category 6a cable or a distance of 55 meters using Category 6 cable. Also known as 10 Gigabit Ethernet or 10BbT.

  • Alien Crosstalk (AXT)

    • A measurement of the noise introduced outside the cable jacket, typically caused by other network cables in close proximity.

  • Amplifier

    • An electronic device designed to raise a signal’s amplitude.


Glossary

  • Amplitude

    • The maximum voltage, or height, of an electronic signal.

  • Analog signal

    • An electronic signal that varies in values.

  • Attenuation

    • The loss of signal strength.

  • Automatic Medium-Dependent Interface Crossover (Auto-MDIX)

    • An electronic chip technology incorporated into Gigabit Ethernet devices to automatically reassign pin functions and eliminate the need for a crossover cable.


Glossary

  • AWG rating

    • A rating that describes the size of a conductor’s diameter.

  • Bandwidth

    • A measurement of the network media’s ability to carry data.

  • Baseband

    • A method of transmitting data in the form of a digital signal, using the entire bandwidth of a cable.

  • Broadband

    • A method of transmitting data in the form of several analog signals at the same time.


Glossary

  • Coaxial cable

    • A type of cable that consists of a copper core conductor surrounded by an insulator referred to as a dielectric. Also called coax.

  • Crossed pair

    • A wiring fault that occurs when one of each of two cable pairs has become part of the other pair’s connection.

  • Crosstalk

    • Interference that comes from neighboring conductors inside a wire’s insulating jacket.


Glossary

  • CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection)

    • A media access method used in Ethernet networks.

  • Decibel (dB)

    • A unit of measurement that expresses the relationship of power between two electrical forces.

  • Digital signal

    • An electronic signal that has discrete values.


Glossary

  • Equal Level Far-End Crosstalk (ELFEXT)

    • A measurement calculated by subtracting the effects of attenuation from the Far-End Crosstalk (FEXT) measurement.

  • Far-End Crosstalk (FEXT)

    • A measurement of reflective loss at the far end, or output end, of a cable. Far-end losses are expressed in decibels.


Glossary

  • Frequency

    • The number of cycles of an electronic signal that occur in 1 second. It is measured in Hertz (Hz).

  • Full-duplex

    • Communication that occurs bi-directionally and simultaneously between two devices. An example of full-duplex communication is communication via telephone.


Glossary

  • Ground

    • A wiring fault that occurs when a conductor connects to the earth through a continuous path.

  • Half-duplex

    • Communication that is bi-directional but can only occur in one direction at a time.

  • Impedance

    • The opposition to alternating current.

  • Interference

    • An undesired electromagnetic signal imposed on a desired signal that distorts or corrupts the desired signal.


Glossary

  • Latency

    • The amount of time it takes a signal to travel from its source to its destination.

  • Magnetic induction

    • An electrical phenomenon in which the magnetic field encircling a current-carrying conductor induces current in a conductor of close proximity. Also called mutual induction.

  • Near-End Crosstalk (NEXT)

    • A measurement of the reflected loss at the near end, or input end, of a cable. Losses are typically expressed in decibels.


Glossary

  • Network media

    • A general term for all forms of pathways that support network communication.

  • Noise

    • Electromagnetic interference.

  • Open

    • A wiring fault that occurs when the length of a conductor has an open spot.

  • Plenum-rated

    • A rating that means a cable has a special type of insulation that will not give off toxic gases should the cable be consumed by fire.


Glossary

  • Power over Ethernet (PoE)

    • An IEEE standard that specifies the supply of small amounts of electrical power to network devices such as cameras, IP phones, wireless access points, speakers, and phone or PDA chargers.

  • Reflected loss

    • The amount of signal reflected from the end of a cable.

  • Resistance

    • The opposition to direct current (DC) in a conductor.


Glossary

  • Reversed pair

    • A wiring fault that occurs when two pairs of a cable assembly have reversed two connections.

  • RG-6

    • A type of coaxial cable that has become the standard for Cable television (CATV) systems and satellite systems.

  • RG-8

    • A thick, rigid coaxial cable used in a 10Base5 network. Also called thicknet.


Glossary

  • RG-58

    • A thin, flexible coaxial cable used in a 10Base2 network. Also called thinnet.

  • Rollover cable

    • A special cable where the pin order is completely reversed on one end of the cable. Pin 1 connects to pin 8, pin 2 connects to pin 7, and so on.

  • Short

    • A wiring fault that occurs in cabling when two conductors are improperly connected, resulting in a shorter circuit path.


Glossary

  • Simplex

    • Communication that occurs in one direction only. An example of simplex communication is the transmission that occurs between a television station and a television.

  • Split pair

    • A wiring fault that occurs when two pairs of conductors are reversed in connection with another pair.

  • Terminating resistor

    • An electrical device that absorbs electrical signals when they reach the end of a network segment.


Glossary

  • Time to Live (TTL)

    • The maximum amount of time a packet is allowed to circulate through a network before it is destroyed.

  • Twisted pair

    • A type of cable that consists of four pairs of twisted conductors.


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