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Promotion and Prevention. Approach and avoidance systems. We have talked about approach and avoidance These systems may be engaged broadly Higgins Promotion focus: Focus on positive outcomes Prevention focus: Focus on negative outcomes. Promotion focus. Driven by nurturance needs

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Approach and avoidance systems
Approach and avoidance systems

  • We have talked about approach and avoidance

  • These systems may be engaged broadly

    • Higgins

    • Promotion focus: Focus on positive outcomes

    • Prevention focus: Focus on negative outcomes


Promotion focus
Promotion focus

  • Driven by nurturance needs

    • Strong ideals--Personality

    • Gain/non-gain situations--Situation

  • Leads to

    • Sensitivity to positive outcomes

    • Seeks hits insure against errors of omission

    • Cheerfulness/Dejection


Prevention focus
Prevention Focus

  • Driven by security needs

    • Oughts: responsibilities--Personality

    • Loss/non-loss situations--Situation

  • Leads to

    • Sensitivity to negative outcomes

    • Seek correct rejections/Avoid errors of commission

    • Relief/Agitation


Affecting cognition
Affecting cognition

  • Promotion

    • Because it seeks “hits”

    • More time on task

  • Prevention

    • Because it wants to avoid “false alarms”

    • Less time on task


Choice effects
Choice effects

  • Promotion

    • Attend both to the likelihood an event will occur as well as the value of the event

    • Frame in terms of “I”

  • Prevention

    • Focus more on the responsibility

    • Likelihood of the event is less important

    • Actions are taken out of obligation

    • Frame in terms of “We”


Regulatory fit
Regulatory Fit

  • Regulatory focus may fit or mismatch with task

  • Fit leads to a feeling of fluency

    • May increase preference for an option

  • Fit increases cognitive flexibility

    • Allows people to recognize when a situation changes

  • Fit increases involvement of explicit processes


Regulatory fit and exploration
Regulatory Fit and Exploration

  • Tradeoff between exploration and exploitation

  • Regulatory fit increases exploration

    • Exploration is systematic

  • Why does this happen?

    • Regulatory fit may signal that the world is acting as expected.


Choice and satisfaction
Choice and satisfaction

  • Need to ensure that focus during choice matches focus during use

    • If use will be in a promotion situation, choice should be made in a promotion frame

    • If use will be in a prevention situation, choice should be made in a prevention frame

  • Choices are made with future satisfaction in mind.


General issues
General Issues

  • Cognitive Psychology focuses on information processing

    • Decisions involve information processing

    • They also involve emotions and motivations

  • Understanding choice requires focusing on both information processing and motivation

    • Dual systems models are a way of thinking about this.


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