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Shift towards Inclusion. Global Trends: Planning and Implementing Strategies for IE . Ghana Education Services Special Education Division, Ministry of Education, Science and Sports, Accra, Ghana December, 2007. 77 million children still not in school.

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Shift towards Inclusion

Global Trends:Planning and Implementing Strategies for IE

Ghana Education Services Special Education Division,

Ministry of Education, Science and Sports,

Accra, Ghana

December, 2007


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77 million children still not in school


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International Legal Framework in Support of Inclusion


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Inclusion and EFA

  • The fundamental principle of EFA is that all children should have the opportunity to learn.

  • The fundamental principle of Inclusive Education is that all children should have the opportunity to learn together.

    Peters, 2004


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Analytical Framework for the Right to, in and through Education


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Rationale for Inclusive Education

  • Education as a Basic Right

  • Foundation for a more just society

  • Takes the EFA agenda forward

  • Focus on all learners, particularly excluded groups


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International Legislative Progress towards Inclusion

UNESCO Study SEN Legislation 1996

52 UN member states responded to questionnaire survey

  • SNE an explicit constitutional right in 15% (8) countries

  • 92% (47) countries report legislation pertaining to SNE

  • Identification and assessment procedures involve parents in 46% of countries and use an inter-disciplinary approach in 42% of countries


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Legislative Progress towards Inclusion cont

  • SNE is available at:

    • pre-primary level in 42% countries

    • primary level in 85% countries

    • secondary level in 80% countries

    • university level in 17% countries

  • 44% reported mandatory“pedagogic integration” (inclusive education)


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Legislative Progress towards Inclusion cont

  • Regular curriculum adapted for SEN available in 42% (27) countries

  • 23% provide special education curriculum

  • 11% have provision for monitoring students’ progress

  • Vocational education for SEN students offered in 63% (24) countries


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International Policy Progress towards Inclusion

UNESCO Review of Special Needs Education 1995

  • 63 UN Member states provided information

  • Several trends reported:

    • Most common policy trend specified developing individual’s optimum potential – presumption in favour of integration

    • Underlying principles of normalization/ democratization


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Policy Progress towards Inclusion cont

  • Identification of aspects of appropriate education, e.g. Zimbabwe’s comprehensive policy included:

    • Early detection and intervention

    • Integration

    • Development of local training facilities

    • Procurement of equipment

    • Development of Resource Centres

    • Provision of support and monitoring centres

    • Assistance for non-governmental organizations

  • Acknowledgement of the importance of including parents in decision-making


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Policy Progress towards Inclusion: Administration and Organization

  • Responsibility for SNE

    • 96% reported responsibility resided with the MoE

    • 38% sole responsibility resided with MoE

    • 58% shared responsibility between MoE and Ministries of Health, Social Welfare and Human Development

    • MoH often assumed responsibility for assessment


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Policy Progress towards Inclusion: Administration and Organization cont

  • Trend towards administration integration of general and special education under same regulatory framework

  • Decentralization evident to regional levels with national oversight

  • 25% reporting voluntary sector provision of SNE subject to ministerial supervision and monitoring


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Current Legislation and Policy Trends

All data should be interpreted with extreme caution

  • Current data not available

  • Most countries have proposed legislative reform

  • Legislation and policy toward Inclusion must be evaluated in the context of:

    • progress towards implementation

    • effectiveness of monitoring and evaluation

      Data on Legislative and Policy Progress drawn from Peters, 2004


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Legislation and Policies - Realities

  • The impression created from official government circles is that there is a tendency towards inclusive educational policies

  • The irony (from a practical viewpoint) is an apparent increase in residential schools and the continuing placement of children with learning difficulties in segregated settings

  • The situation indicates that medical influences remain pervasive.

    Martin, 1989 cited in Avoke, 2002


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Inclusion and Quality

Studies in both OECD and non-OECD countries indicate that students with disabilities achieve better school results in inclusive settings

UNESCO, 2005


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Inclusion and Change

Pursuing innovations in classroom instruction with the aim of pedagogic, communicative and curricular change grounded in a critical understanding of ‘inclusivity’ is the most promising alternative approach to educational change.

Sefa Dei, 2005 – The Challenge of Inclusive Schooling in Africa: a Ghanaian Case Study


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Shift towards Inclusion

  • IE is gaining momentum and becoming the most effective approach to address the learning needs of all students to regular schools and classrooms

  • Effective implementation of IE requires simultaneous action, both at the system level and at the school level


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Action at System Level

Conversion of national goals and international intent into realities involves:

  • Identifying existing supportive constitutional and legal provisions

  • Making necessary amendments in existing legislation

  • Planning new legislation and policies

  • Networking for sharing experiences

  • Supporting legislation and policy changes through awareness programmes


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Tools for Educational Planners and Policymakers

Questions to be considered prior to in-depth analysis of educational plans:

  • What policies promote inclusion and which ones go against it?

  • What are the existing barriers at the policy level that can act as a deterrent to the practice of inclusion and how can this issue be addressed?


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Tools for Educational Planners and Policymakers cont

  • How can suitable guidelines to address and facilitate inclusion be prepared and followed?

  • How can debate and discussion be generated among relevant stakeholders to promote inclusion?

  • How can monitoring mechanisms be formulated and incorporated into plans and realistic goals for achieving intended targets?

    UNESCO, 2005


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Action at School Level

  • The Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education (CSIE) launched an Index for Inclusive Education in 2000.

  • The Index has been trialled in the UK andhas been translated and adapted for piloting in 21 other countries including South Africa.

  • The index challenges any school to move forward, regardless of how inclusive that school believes itself already to be


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Action at School Level

Index works around a cycle of activities which guide schools through stages of preparation, investigation, development and review.


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Index for Inclusive Schooling

  • Pupils are entitled to take part in all subjects and activities

  • Teaching and learning are planned with all pupils in mind

  • The curriculum develops understanding and respect for differences

  • During lessons all pupils participate


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Index for Inclusive Schooling

  • A variety of teaching styles and strategies is used

  • Pupils experience success in their learning

  • The curriculum seeks to develop understanding of the different cultures in society

  • Pupils take part in the assessment and accreditation systems

  • Difficulties in learning are seen as opportunities for the development of practice


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References

  • Avoke, M. 2002. Models of Disability in the Labelling and Attitudinal Discourse in Ghana. Disability and Society [Online].17 (7), pp769-777. Available from: Academic Premier http://web.ebscohost.com.remote.library.dcu.ie/ehost/pdf?vid=4&hid=12&sid=059a2713-ddb1-4119-9427-e0ff776af531%40sessionmgr3 [Accessed 16 November 2007]

  • Kristensen, K., Omagor-Loican, M., Onen, N. and Okot, D. 2006. Opportunities for inclusion? The education of learners with special educational needs and disabilities in special schools in Uganda. British Journal of Special Education [Online]. 33 (3), p139-147. Available from: Academic Premier <http://web.ebscohost.com.remote.library.dcu.ie/ehost/detail?vid=3&hid=2&sid=48029fc9-e761-4f39-9f30-df0d29cdb48b%40sessionmgr109> [Accessed 16 November 2007]

  • Peters, S. J. 2004. Inclusive Education: An EFA Strategy for All Children [Online]. Available from: World Bank <http://www1.worldbank.org/education/pdf/InclusiveEdu_efa_strategy_for_children.pdf> [Accessed 16 November 2007]

  • Sefa Dei, G.J. 2006. The Challenge of Inclusive Schooling in Africa: a Ghanaian Case Study [Online]. Available from: EbscoHost http://web.ebscohost.com.remote.library.dcu.ie/ehost/detail?vid=5&hid=116&sid=f7473775-31b9-4438-8c7e-16a2563e98ea%40sessionmgr2 [Accessed 16 November 2007]

  • Thomas, G. and Vaughan, M. 2004. Inclusive Education: Readings and Reflections. Maidenhead: Open University Press

  • UNESCO 2005. Guidelines for Inclusion: Ensuring Access to Education for All [Online]. Available from: UNESCO http://www.ibe.unesco.org/cops/workshops/China/UNESCO_Guideline_2006.pdf [Accessed 15 November 2007]

  • Van den Brule, J. 2007. The Right to Education for All: Global Perspectives in Inclusive Education. IN: Gulf Arab States for the 48th Session of the ICE 2008, Dubai, United Arab Emirates, August 2007 [Online}. Available from: UNESCO http://portal.unesco.org/education/en/ev.php-URL_ID=54092&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html [Accessed 5 November 2007]


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Reflection & ReformGetting all children to, in and through school

Group discussion

Focus on sharing concerns related to current legislations and policies, analyse existing strengths and weaknesses and discuss practical measures to facilitate inclusive practice.

Objectives

  • To share existing provisions in policies and legislations for IE

  • To analyse the existing strengths and gaps in policies and legislations for IE

  • To discuss practical measures to facilitate IE by building on existing strengths and filling up the gaps in policies and legislations


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Group 1

To share existing provisions in policy and legislation for IE

  • Is there a policy statement/s with reference to the excluded groups? Which are the particular groups specified?

  • What is the awareness level as regards the legislative provisions?

  • Is reference made to UN declarations?

  • With whom lies the responsibility of the provision of education?

  • What are the linkages between formal and non-formal education in the plans/programmes for more inclusive education?


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Group 2

To analyse the existing strengths and gaps in policies and legislations for inclusive education:

  • Which legislative provisions and educational policies support inclusive education and which ones go against it?

  • Do the current educational policies favour particular groups at the expense of marginalised ones? If so, in what way? Does this create obstacles/ barriers to inclusion?

  • Are changes required in legislation and policy to start/strengthen inclusive education?

  • How does government policy relate to NGOs?

  • How do the NGOs view the government efforts?

  • What are the possibilities of forming linkages?


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Group 3

To discuss practical measures to facilitate IE by building on existing strengths and filling up the gaps in policies and legislations

  • With whom lies the responsibility of implementing special education?

  • How can suitable guidelines to address and facilitate inclusion be prepared and followed?

  • How can effective monitoring and evaluation be done?

  • What lobbying would be required to ensure implementation of policies, allocation and monitoring of budgets?

  • How can lobbying groups such as parents be involved in monitoring/evaluation of policies and legislative provisions?

  • What useful experiences can you share?


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