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Bio-Technology R&D: Performance Enhancement & Innovative Product Development Through Pore Structure. Akshaya Jena and Krishna Gupta Porous Materials, Inc. Ithaca, NY, USA. Dependence of Performance on Pore Structure Characteristics .

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Bio technology r d performance enhancement innovative product development through pore structure l.jpg

Bio-Technology R&D:Performance Enhancement & Innovative Product Development Through Pore Structure

Akshaya Jena and Krishna Gupta

Porous Materials, Inc.

Ithaca, NY, USA


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Dependence of Performance on Pore Structure Characteristics

  • Many innovative products are currently being increasingly used in biotech industries including;

    • Health care

    • Medical

    • Pharmaceutical

  • Examples of such products;

    • Substrates for tissue growth

    • Drug delivery systems

    • Implants

    • Wound dressings

    • Arterial grafts

    • Filters for separation of bacteria from body fluids,

    • Substrates for organ culture

  • Pore structure of these products governs the flow and the kinetics of the bio-chemical processes which occur during applications


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Dependence of Performance on Pore Structure Characteristics

  • Performance dependent on their pore structure characteristic

  • Influence of application

    environment on pore structure

    needs to be determined

    • Chemical environment

    • Operating temperature

    • Humidity

    • Stresses generated during

      the operation


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Techniques for Measurement of Pore Structure Characteristic

  • Many techniques are available for evaluation of pore structure characteristics relevant for bio-technical applications


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Techniques for Measurement of Pore Structure Characteristic

  • Liquid Extrusion Porosimetry

    • Measures

      • Through pore volume

      • Through pore diameters

      • Pore distribution

      • Hydrophobic through pores

      • Hydrophilic through pores

      • Structure over a range of:

        • Temperature

        • Stress

        • Chemical environment

        • Controlled humidity


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Techniques for Measurement of Pore Structure Characteristic

  • Capillary Flow Porometry

    • Measures

      • Wide range of through pore throat diameters

      • Pore distribution

      • Gas permeability

      • Structure over a range of

        • Temperature

        • Stress

        • Chemical environment

        • Controlled humidity

  • Permeametry

    • Measures

      • Gas, vapor, and liquid transmission rates

      • Many chemical species

      • Over wide range of concentration, temperature, and stress on the sample


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Techniques for Measurement of Pore Structure Characteristic

  • Water Vapor and Gas Transmission Analysis

    • Measures

      • Water vapor transmission rate

      • Uses many gradient:

        • Humidity

        • Temperature

        • Concentration

        • Pressure

  • Vacuapore

    • Measures

      • Through and blind hydrophobic pore volume

      • Through and blind hydrophobic pore diameter

      • Distribution of hydrophobic pores


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Techniques for Measurement of Pore Structure Characteristic

  • Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry

    • Measures

      • Through and blind pore volume and diameter

  • BET Sorptometry

    • Measures

      • Surface area of through and blind pores

      • Very small through and blind pore volume

      • Pore diameter and distribution

      • Chemisorptions of many chemicals over a wide range of temperatures and pressures

  • Pycnometry

    • Measures

      • True and bulk density


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How Can PMI Help?

  • What is PMI?

    • Porous Materials, Inc. designs, manufactures, and sells instruments for pore structure characterization

    • Has vast experience in patenting of novel technology for pore structure characterization and developing custom instruments for a wide variety of applications


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How Can PMI Help?

  • What is PMI?

    • Has published many papers and presented many oral and poster papers in conferences on pore structure characterization of the products of biotech industries

    • Has supplied instruments to many biotech related industries and research laboratories all over the globe


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PMI Liquid Extrusion Porosimeter

PMI Advanced Capillary Flow Porometer

  • Specially designed for biotech industry

    • Wide range of through pores

    • Wide range of sample sizes including miniature samples

Pore Structure Characterization Instruments by PMI


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Water Vapor & Gas Diffusion Analyzers & Permeameters

Unique products widely used in the biotech industry

Pore Structure CharacterizationInstruments by PMI


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PMI Vacuapore

PMI Mercury Intrusion

Porosimeter

Suitable for analysis of hydrophobic and hydrophilic pores

Pore Structure CharacterizationInstruments by PMI


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Gas Pycnometer

BET Sorptometer

All instruments needed to investigate pore structure in the biotech industry are manufactured by PMI.

Pore Structure Characterization Instruments by PMI


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All PMI Instruments Fully Automated

  • Fully automated

    • Test execution

    • Data acquisition

    • Data storage

    • Data reduction

  • Windows-based, menu driven, simple operation

  • Objective, accurate reproducible results


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PMI In-House Contract Testing Laboratory

  • Performs tests on biotech samples submitted from all over the globe

  • Test time can be as short as two days


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Pore Structure Characterization of Substrates for Tissue Growth and Culture

Example of Application of PMI Instruments


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Through Pore Volume

  • Instruments used to measure through pore volume

    • PMI Liquid Extrusion Porosimeter

  • Only through pores relevant for biotechnology measured

  • Large 500 m pores measureable

  • Highly repeatable

  • Click here for more information on this topic


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Through Pore Distribution

  • Instruments used to measure through pore distribution

    • Volume distribution of the through pores:

    • PMI Liquid Extrusion Porosimeter

    • Volume distribution of through and blind pores:

    • PMI Mercury Intrusion Porosimeter

  • Expected identical pore volume by both methods (No blind pore in nanofiber substrate)

  • Expected high Porosity, 81.7%

  • Much higher resolution by liquid extrusion technique

  • High pressures and toxic mercury completely avoided by extrusion technique


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Characteristics of Through Pore Throat Diameters

  • Through pore throat diameters determine nutrient and drug permeation rate and govern separation of entities like bacteria from body fluids, drugs, drinking water, food and beverages.

  • Instrument used to measure through pore throat diameters : PMI Capillary Flow Porometer

    • Measures

      • The largest pore throat diameter

      • Mean flow pore throat diameter

      • Pore distribution

  • Click here for more information on this topic


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Characteristics of Through Pore Throat Diameters

  • Narrow distribution demonstrated (The largest throat diameter is 2.91 m and the mean is 1.65 m )

  • The flow based mean throat diameter (1.65 m) is close to the volume based median pore diameter (3.27 m)

  • Results suggest inappreciable change in pore diameter along pore path

  • Click here for more information on this topic

Distribution of through pore throat diameters in a nanofiber coated substrate


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Liquid Permeability

  • Permeability helps accessibility of fluids for tissue in-growth

  • Instrument used for permeability: PMI Liquid Permeameter

Excellent tissue in-growth in high permeable reticulated foam substrate


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Mean Flow Pore Diameter

  • Critical flow rates and pore diameters govern tissue in-growth

  • Mean pore diameter measured by: PMI Capillary Flow Porometer

  • Click here for more information on this topic

Correlation between percent tissue in-growth and ratio of liquid permeability and mean flow pore diameter for a laser consolidated metal implant


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Special Needs

  • You can visit our website to see the wide spectrum of pore structure capability that our instruments offer

  • If you have a special need that is not part of PMI’s standard test list, the engineers at PMI will be happy to talk to you about your testing requirements and come up with a suitable solution


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