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Basic Medical Terminology 1. Introduction. Medical words are used daily media doctors, nurses working life Examples arthritis hepatitis anemia Useful to learn medical terminology. Objectives. Enable you to understand the common medical terms

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Introduction
Introduction

  • Medical words are used daily

    • media

    • doctors, nurses

    • working life

  • Examples

    • arthritis

    • hepatitis

    • anemia

  • Useful to learn medical terminology


Objectives
Objectives

  • Enable you to understand the common medical terms

  • Allow you to explore and learn the vocabulary of the medical field

  • Equip you with knowledge useful for daily work in the health care setting


Lecture schedule
Lecture Schedule

  • Lecture 1

    • Introduction

    • Word Structure and Analysis

    • Suffixes

  • Lecture 2

    • Prefixes

    • Enlarging your medical vocabulary



Introduction1
Introduction

  • Most medical terms come from

    • Greek language

      • diagnosis, surgery

    • Latin languages

      • anatomical names

  • Many sound mysterious

    • but can be easily worked out


Word structure
Word Structure

  • All words have a word root

    • eg: trans/port

      ex/port

  • Compound words

    • words with 2 or more roots

    • eg: grand-father

      fire-fighter


Word structure1
Word Structure

  • Vowel

    • often added to a root word

    • allows formation of a compound word

    • makes pronunciation easier

  • Combining form

    • word root + vowel

    • eg: therm/o/meter

      micr/o/scope


Word structure2
Word Structure

  • Suffix

    • attached to root

    • eg: practition-er

  • Medical terms

    • like jigsaw puzzle

    • divided into several parts

  • Example

    • HEMATOLOGY

      • HEMAT /O/LOGY


Word analysis

Suffix

Root

(“study of”)

(“blood”)

Word Analysis

  • 1st step

    • look at end of the word

    • suffix

  • 2nd step

    • look at beginning

    • root word

      • gives meaning of term

  • 3rd step

    • combining vowel

    • usually consists of vowel “o”

HEMAT/O/LOGY

Combining vowel


Word analysis1

Suffix

Root

Combining vowel

(“study of”)

(“blood”)

Word Analysis

HEMAT / O / LOGY

  • the study of blood


Electr o cardi o gram

Root

Suffix

Root

Electr/o/cardi/o/gram

  • suffix

    • “gram” - a record

  • 1st root

    • “electr” - electricity

  • 2nd root

    • “cardi” - heart

  • combining vowel

    • “o” -connects roots with suffix


Word analysis2
Word Analysis

Electrocardiogram

  • record of the electricity in the heart

  • combining form

    • combining vowel + root

    • eg: cardi/o

      • heart

    • eg: electr/o

      • electricity


  • Gastr o enter o logy

    Root

    Suffix

    Root

    Gastr/o/enter/o/logy

    • Suffix

      • logy

    • 1st combining form

      • gastr/o

    • 2nd combining form

      • enter/o

    • study of the stomach and intestines


    Word analysis3
    Word Analysis

    • Gastr/o/scope

      • suffix scope

        • instrument to visually examine

      • combining form gastr/o

        • stomach

      • instrument to visually examine the stomach


    Word analysis4
    Word Analysis

    • Gastr/ic

      • suffix

        • adjective: pertaining to

        • combining vowel is dropped when suffix begins with a vowel

      • root

        • stomach

      • pertaining to stomach


    Word analysis5
    Word Analysis

    • Cardi/ac

      • suffix

        • adjective: pertaining to

        • combining vowel dropped

      • root

        • heart

      • pertaining to the heart


    Word analysis6
    Word Analysis

    • Enter/itis

      • suffix

        • inflammation

        • combing vowel dropped

      • root

        • intestines

      • inflammation of the intestines



    Suffixes1
    Suffixes

    • attached to the end of root words to further its meaning

    • 2 groups

      • those that describe diagnoses

        • describe condition of patient

      • those that describe procedures


    Diagnostic suffixes
    Diagnostic Suffixes

    • -algia

      • pain

      • eg: neuralgia

        arthralgia

    • -itis

      • inflammation

      • eg: arthritis

        carditis


    Diagnostic suffixes1
    Diagnostic Suffixes

    • -ia

      • a state or condition

      • eg: bradycardia

        pneumonia

    • -osis

      • abnormal condition

      • eg: neurosis


    Diagnostic suffixes2
    Diagnostic Suffixes

    • -iasis

      • condition, formation of

      • presence of stone (lith-)

      • eg: nephrolithiasis

    • -genic

      • origin, producing

      • eg: neurogenic causes

        pathogenic bacteria


    Diagnostic suffixes3
    Diagnostic Suffixes

    • -emia

      • condition involving blood

      • eg: anemia

        septicemia, bacteremia

    • -megaly

      • enlargement

      • eg: acromegaly

        hepatomegaly, cardiomegaly


    Diagnostic suffixes4
    Diagnostic Suffixes

    • -oma

      • tumor, swelling

      • eg: breast adenoma

    • -oid

      • being like, resembling

      • eg: uterine fibroid

    • -lysis

      • break down, loosening

      • eg: hemolysis


    Procedural suffixes
    Procedural Suffixes

    • describe medical procedures

      • looking into body parts

      • types of surgical repair

      • removal of body part

    • examples

      • -ectomy

      • -otomy

      • -scopy


    Procedural suffixes1
    Procedural Suffixes

    • -ectomy

      • excision of, removal of

      • may or may not remove entire organ

      • eg: tonsillectomy

        hepatectomy

    • -otomy

      • a surgical incision

      • eg: craniotomy, laparotomy


    Procedural suffixes2
    Procedural Suffixes

    • -centesis

      • surgical puncture with a needle

      • eg: amniocentesis

        thoracocentesis

    • -scopy

      • insertion of an instrument to visualize

      • eg: gastroscopy, cystoscopy


    Procedural suffixes3
    Procedural Suffixes

    • -plasty

      • surgical correction, plastic repair

      • eg: hip arthroplasty

    • -ostomy

      • operation to create opening (stoma)

      • eg: colostomy


    Other suffixes
    Other Suffixes

    • do not fit into either category

    • -logy

      • study of

      • eg: biology

        cardiology

    • -form

      • shape

      • eg: deformed


    Other suffixes1
    Other Suffixes

    • -gram, -graph

      • a written record

      • eg:

        • electrocardiogram

        • polygraph machine

          • measures several parameters


    Other suffixes2
    Other Suffixes

    • -graphy

      • process of recording

      • eg: photography


    Review
    Review

    • Root word

      • gives essential meaning of term

    • Suffix

      • word end

    • Combining vowel

      • connects root to suffix /other roots

    • Combining form

      • combination of root and combining vowel



    Test your knowledge
    TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE

    1. All words have a

    A. root

    B. vowel

    C. prefix


    Test your knowledge1
    TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE

    2. The root in the medical term “tonsillitis” is

    A. itis

    B. sill

    C. tonsill

    3. “Fasciotomy” is an example of a

    A. simple word

    B. compound word

    C. combining word


    Test your knowledge2
    TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE

    4. When you analyze a medical term, begin at the

    A. beginning of the word

    B. middle of the word

    C. end of the word

    5. Adding a vowel to a root results in a

    A. prefix

    B. combining form

    C. complex word


    Test your knowledge3
    TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE

    6. Which of the following can be used to divide words into their word parts?

    A. /

    B. =

    C. …

    7. Which of the following combinations do not need a combining vowel?

    A. dermat + itis

    B. micr + scopy

    C. dermat + logy


    Test your knowledge4
    TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE

    8. Combining forms

    A. are always used to end a medical term

    B. are never connected to a suffix

    C. are never used to end a medical term

    9. The word gastroduodenoscopy has

    A. 1 root

    B. 2 roots

    C. 3 roots


    Test your knowledge5
    TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE

    10. In the word “ physiology”, the suffix is

    A. phy

    B. physio

    C. logy


    Divide each of the following words into their component parts

    Word Root wordCombining Vowel Suffix

    Cardiologist

    Biology

    Mammogram

    Bronchoscopy

    Arthritis

    Inguinal

    Pneumonia

    Oncologist

    Cardiologist

    Biology

    Mamm o gram

    Bronch o scopy

    Arthr - itis

    Inguin -al

    Pneumon - ia

    Onc ologist


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