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Type of School Attended in 1992, by Parents’ Wave of Arrival. FIGURE 4.3. Why? . Wave of arrival and type of school are interrelated and heavily influenced by socioeconomic factors Cubans from the exile wave were mostly elites and can therefore afford private schooling for their children

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Why? Arrival

  • Wave of arrival and type of school are interrelated and heavily influenced by socioeconomic factors

  • Cubans from the exile wave were mostly elites and can therefore afford private schooling for their children

  • The Mariel wave included sizeable representation from Cuba’s lower socioeconomic sectors


Ethnic self identification

Ethnic Self-Identification Arrival

CILS respondents were asked to indicate, in an open ended question, how they identified themselves


Findings
Findings Arrival

  • Slightly over half the respondents identified themselves as Cuban-American

  • Cubans were more likely to identify themselves as hyphenated Americans than any other ethnic group in the CILS survey

  • Cubans ranked the lowest of all groups in the CILS survey to identify as plain Cubans

  • Cubans were more likely than any other group in the CILS survey to identify as plain Americans


Why? Arrival

  • “groups that are more advantaged and had lengthier stays in the United States exhibit a greater tendency to identify as American”

    • More advantaged because of the resources available as a result of the Golden Enclave

    • Oldest immigrants in the United States

  • Paradox

    • It is paradoxical that children growing up in the most highly developed U.S. immigrant enclave, where their cultural traits from their country of origin are reinforced, are the most likely to identify themselves as Americans instead of Cubans


Ethnic self identification in 1992 by parents wave of arrival
Ethnic Self-Identification in 1992, by Parents’ Wave of Arrival

  • FIGURE 4.4

  • Cuban American is the most popular label for all waves


Ethnic self identification by type of school attended
Ethnic Self-Identification by Type of School Attended Arrival

  • Figure 4.5

  • Reinforces the fact that groups that have been in the U.S. longer and have more advantage are more likely to embrace the American label


Ethnic self identification of the cuban origin respondents
Ethnic Self-Identification of the Cuban-Origin Respondents Arrival

  • 2 Figures for 4.6 (92 and 95)

  • The Hispanic and American label switched places in three years

  • Tendency of Cubans to abandon the American label in late adolescence


Why is there a dramatic shift towards a hispanic label
Why is there a dramatic shift towards a Hispanic label? Arrival

  • CILS researchers do not know

  • “adoption of a Hispanic identity is not associated with a positive adaptation profile, but with several dimensions of disadvantage”


Perceptions of discrimination

Perceptions of Discrimination Arrival

CILS respondents were asked if they felt they were discriminated against


Percentage who reported experiencing discrimination by parents wave of arrival in 1992 and 1995
Percentage Who Reported Experiencing Discrimination by Parents’ Wave of Arrival in 1992 and 1995

  • Figure 4.7

  • Although the percentage of discrimination went up in 1995, out of all of the groups in the CILS survey, Cubans are the group least likely to report discrimination in 1992 and in 1995


Why? Parents’ Wave of Arrival in 1992 and 1995

  • They are protected and insulated by the Cuban enclave

  • They are shielded within their community from discrimination from the host society

  • Cubans in mostly white and mostly black schools are more likely to report discrimination


Language

Language Parents’ Wave of Arrival in 1992 and 1995

CILS Respondents were asked about English Proficiency, language preference and foreign language proficiency


Percentage who preferred english by parents wave of arrival in 1992 and 1995
Percentage Who Preferred English by Parents’ Wave of Arrival in 1992 and 1995

  • Figure 4.9?

  • The CILS data shows that more than 90% of Cuban respondents preferred to speak English


Percentage who preferred english by type of school attended
Percentage Who Preferred English by Type of School Attended Arrival in 1992 and 1995

  • Figure 4.10

  • There is a significant increase in the percentage of students in private schools to report that they spoke Spanish very well


Why? Arrival in 1992 and 1995

  • This can be attributed to the fact that private schools offer a curriculum that enhances Spanish language skills

    • Offer Spanish classes in literature and grammar and extracurricular activities including Spanish club, cultural fairs and Spanish writing contests

    • This is important because it is easy for children of immigrants to rapidly lose skills in their parents’ language

  • The same private school students who reported a dramatic rise in their Spanish language also increased their English language skills and their preference for English


Aspirations and achievement

Aspirations and Achievement Arrival in 1992 and 1995


Percentage who aspired to earn an advanced degree by parent s wave of arrival
Percentage Who Aspired to Earn an Advanced Degree by Parent’s Wave of Arrival

  • Figure 4.13



Measures of educational achievement by parent s wave of arrival and type of school attended
Measures of Educational Achievement by Parent’s Wave of Arrival and Type of School Attended

  • Table 4.2

  • Academic performance relating to overall GPA and dropout rates are one of the lowest in the CILS sample


Findings1
Findings Arrival and Type of School Attended

  • GPA

    • Only the students attending the private schools exceed the mean GPA

    • Only the students attending white suburban schools come close to the mean GPA

  • Dropout Rates

    • Cubans have the highest dropout rates compared to any other group in the CILS sample

  • Paradox

    • Given such favorable migration and reception for Cubans because of the Golden Enclave, we would expect successful academic outcomes and instead they have below average grades and the lowest dropout rates in the sample


Why? Arrival and Type of School Attended

  • 1. Cubans are the most advantaged, oldest, and most acculturated group and they are beginning to follow the mainstream American pattern in which aspirations and confidence remains high because they believe the resources will be available to them without extra academic effort

  • 2. The confidence of second-generation Cubans to succeed without much effort is because they are the dominant immigrant group in Miami. Therefore, there are an availability of resources and employment within the enclave for upward mobility

    • The enclave acts as a safety net instead of a springboard for second generation Cubans


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