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Teaching International Marketing. Agenda. The Basics Basics of marketing Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning Marketing Mix Basics of international marketing Teaching Approaches Presentation: Global vs. Comparative Observational Experiential Application. Focus.

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Presentation Transcript

Agenda
Agenda

  • The Basics

    • Basics of marketing

      • Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning

      • Marketing Mix

    • Basics of international marketing

  • Teaching Approaches

    • Presentation: Global vs. Comparative

    • Observational

    • Experiential

    • Application


Focus
Focus

Marketing is an organizational function and a set of processes for creating, communicating and delivering value to customers and for managing customer relationships in ways that benefit the organization and its stakeholders.



The Complete Process

Market

Segmentation

Market

Targeting

Market

Positioning

Design a product or

service to meet a

segment’s needs and develop a

marketing mix that

will create a competitive advantage in the minds of the selected target market

Identify and describe

market segments

Evaluate segments

and decide which

to go after


Market segmentation
Market Segmentation

  • Identifying distinct groups of consumers whose purchasing behavior differs from other in important ways.

  • Marketing mix adjusted to reflect differing purchasing patterns in segments.

    • Geography

    • Demographics

    • Socio-cultural factors

    • Psychological factors


Market segmentation1
Market Segmentation

  • Two main issues in the differences between countries

    • The structure of market segments

    • The existence of segments that transcend national borders


Market targeting and positioning
Market Targeting and Positioning

  • Marketers evaluate the attractiveness of each potential segment and decide which of these groups they will try to turn into customers

    • Mass

    • Differentiated

    • Concentrated

    • Custom

  • Developing a marketing strategy aimed at influencing how a particular market segment perceives a product or service in comparison to the competition

    • 4 common positioning errors

      • Underpositioning: lack of differentiation

      • Overpositioning: too narrow

      • Confused: too many things to too many people

      • Doubtful: consumer just doesn’t believe it



Marketing Mix

Price

Product

Consumers

Place

Promotion



Product attributes
Product Attributes

  • A product is a bundle of attributes. If consumer needs were the same all over, a firm could simply sell the same product worldwide. Unfortunately, differences in the three following areas often necessitate adaptations

    • Cultural differences

    • Economic differences

    • Product and technical standards


Cultural differences
Cultural Differences

  • Range of dimensions:

    • Social structure

    • Language

    • Religion

    • Education

  • Most important - the impact of tradition

  • Some tastes and preferences becoming cosmopolitan


Economic differences
Economic Differences

  • Consumer behavior is influenced by economic development

    • Consumers in highly developed countries tend to have extra performance attributes in their products

    • Consumers in less developed countries tend not to demand these extra performance attributes


Product and technical standards
Product and Technical Standards

  • Government standards can prevent the introduction of global products

  • Different technical standards impede global markets, as well

    • Come from idiosyncratic decisions made long ago



Distribution strategy
Distribution Strategy

  • Three different distribution systems:

    • Retail concentration: number of retailers

      • Cost/benefit of each alternative vary from country to country

    • Channel length: levels of channel members

      • Longer the channel in a country, the higher the price

      • Shorter channel in a country, lower price

    • Channel exclusivity: access

      • Match to positioning of product in country


A typical distribution system
A Typical Distribution System

Manufacturer Inside the Country

Manufacturer Outside the Country

Import Agent

Wholesale Distributor

Retail Distributor

Final Customer



Pricing strategy
Pricing Strategy

  • Price discrimination

  • Strategic pricing

  • Regulatory factors


Pricing strategy1
Pricing Strategy

  • Price discrimination: Different prices, different countries, same product

    • Charging what the market will bear

    • Two factors:

      • Must keep national markets separate

      • Different price elasticities

  • Arbitrage:Charging different prices in different countries for same product

    • Doesn’t always work

    • Sometimes it does

  • Income level and competitive conditions determine elasticity

    • Elasticity (price) tends to be be greater in countries with low income levels

    • Elasticity (demand) tends to be greater in countries where there are many competitors


Strategic pricing
Strategic Pricing

  • Predatory pricing:

    • Using price as a competitive weapon

  • Multipoint pricing strategy:

    • When two or more international firms compete against each other in two or more national markets

    • A firm’s pricing strategy in one market may impact a rival in another market

  • Experience curve pricing:

    • Firms price low worldwide to build market share. Incurred losses are made up as company moves down experience curve


Regulatory influences on prices
Regulatory Influences on Prices

  • Antidumping regulations:

    • Selling a product for a price that is less than the cost of producing it

      • Predatory pricing and experience curve pricing may violate regulations

    • Antidumping rules place a floor under export prices and limit a firm’s ability to pursue strategic pricing

  • Competition Policy:

    • Promote competition

    • Restrict monopoly practices

    • Can limit the prices a company can charge in a given country


Nike Pricing Strategy

Price discrimination across markets

Multi-point pricing


Marketing Mix:

Promotion


Communications strategy
Communications Strategy

  • Effectiveness of international communications can be impacted by:

    • Cultural barriers

      • Need to develop cross-cultural literacy


Communications strategy1
Communications Strategy

  • Effectiveness of international communications can be impacted by:

    • Cultural barriers

      • Need to develop cross-cultural literacy

    • Source and country of origin effects

      • Receiver of the message evaluates it based upon the status of the sender

    • Country of origin effects:

      • Emphasize/de-emphasize foreign origin


Communications strategy2
Communications Strategy

  • Effectiveness of international communications can be impacted by:

    • Cultural barriers.

      • Need to develop cross-cultural literacy

    • Source and country of origin effects

      • Receiver of the message evaluates it based upon the status of the sender

    • Country of origin effects:

      • Emphasize/de-emphasize foreign origin

    • Noise levels

      • Tends to reduce the effectiveness of a message

      • Developed countries - high

      • Less developed countries - low

    • Push versus Pull:

      • Push emphasizes personal selling

      • Pull depends on mass media advertising


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