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Gobierno de Chile: Comisión Nacional de Energía Seminario Evaluación de la Opción Nuclear para Chile Hotel Hyatt, Las Condes, Santiago, Chile; Enero 28, 2010. Nuclear Safety: International Consensus. Abel J. González

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Gobierno de Chile: Comisión Nacional de EnergíaSeminario Evaluación de la Opción Nuclear para ChileHotel Hyatt, Las Condes, Santiago, Chile; Enero 28, 2010

Nuclear Safety: International Consensus

Abel J. González

Representante: Comité de las Naciones Unidas para el Estudio de los Efectos de las Radiaciones Atómicas

Vicepresidente de la Comisión Internacional de Protección Radiológica

Miembro de la Comisión de Estándares de Seguridad del OIEA

Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear de Argentina

Av. Del Libertador 8250; (1429)Buenos Aires,Argentina+54 1163231758;[email protected]


The International System: consensus on

Radiation Health Effects

Protection Paradigm

Nuclear Safety Regime

Chile within the System

Content


How the international system works

How the international system works?

2010 Seminar, Santiago, Chile


Epistemology of radiation method validity and scope of the scientific knowledge on radiation

Epistemology of radiationMethod, validity and scope of the scientific knowledge on radiation

Radiation Protection Paradigm

Conceptual model for keeping people protected

Global Nuclear Safety Regime

Establishing international safety standards and providing for their global application

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4


The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) deals with the epistemology

2010 Seminar, Santiago, Chile


WNU-Ankara 2008 Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) deals with the epistemology

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6


International estimates of the levels of radiation exposure

International Estimates of the Levels of Radiation Exposure Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) deals with the epistemology


Sources

Natural Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) deals with the epistemology

Cosmic rays

Terrestrial

Inhalation [radon]

Artificial

Medical

Military

Nuclear Power

Occupational

Accidents

Sources


Radiation dos e
Radiation Dos Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) deals with the epistemologye

Amount ofradiation energy absorbed by tissue per unit mass

Measured in Sieverts

Radioactivity

(bequerels)


The unit of dose is the sievert sv 0 001 sv 1 millisievert msv
The unit of dose is the Sievert [Sv] Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) deals with the epistemology(0.001 Sv = 1 milliSievert [mSv])

How much is a mSv?

1 radiography = 1 mSv; 1CT = 50 mSv

1 year of natural radiation = 1 – 10 mSv

Releases from NPP <<0.1 mSv

10


annual dose Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) deals with the epistemology

mSv/year

Natural Background

~100

~ 10

~ 2.4

~ 1

Few people

In few areas 

VERY HIGH

Many people

In many areas 

TYPICALLY HIGH

Majority of people

around the world 

AVERAGE

MINIMUM


OSU, Stillwater, OK, USA, February 2008 Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) deals with the epistemology

12


Medical sources
Medical sources Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) deals with the epistemology


Computerized tomography (CT) Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) deals with the epistemology

procedures by year (millions)

Annual growth > 10%/yr

U.S. population < 1%/yr


Military activities
Military activities Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) deals with the epistemology


Nuclear weapons tests
Nuclear weapons tests Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) deals with the epistemology


Doses due to atmospheric nuclear testing
Doses due to atmospheric nuclear testing Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) deals with the epistemology


Occupational exposures
Occupational exposures Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) deals with the epistemology


Man-made sources Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) deals with the epistemology

Natural sources


Civil nuclear power
Civil nuclear power Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) deals with the epistemology


Global average levels
Global average levels Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) deals with the epistemology

Source: UNSCEAR 2000 Report


Annual per caput dose msv
Annual per caput dose (mSv) Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) deals with the epistemology


Annual per caput dose msv for usa
Annual per caput dose (mSv) for USA Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) deals with the epistemology


In summary medical uses rather than nuclear power is responsible of increased radiation levels

In summary: Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) deals with the epistemologyMedical uses rather than nuclear power is responsible of increased radiation levels


What are the health effects attribuatble to radiation exposure

What are the Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) deals with the epistemologyhealth effects attribuatble to radiation exposure?

2010 Seminar, Santiago, Chile


Overall unscear conclusion

Overall UNSCEAR conclusion Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) deals with the epistemology

2010 Seminar, Santiago, Chile


Limit of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) deals with the epistemology

epidemiological

knowledge

Limit of

pathological

knowledge

Likelihood

of

radiation

effects

Certainty

(100%)

Deterministic

effects

Stochastic

effects

Burns, sickness & death

Biology

Inference

Epidemiology

Statistical estimation:

populations

Pathology

Clinical diagnosis:

individuals

Increasing risk of cancer

5%

~1000

Dose (mSv)

~100

Radiation

protection region

28


Plausibility of stochastic effects, Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) deals with the epistemologyp

average 2.4 mSv

typical 10 mSv

high 100 mSv

Radiation

protection region

increment ofp

risk

factor

Background incidence

increment ofD

Dose, D

backgroundannual dose

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Likelihood of Health Effect Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) deals with the epistemology

Certainty

(100%)

epidemiology

pathology

Dose (mSv)

Risk

estimation

Collective

attribution

Individual

attribution

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The international protection paradigm

The International Protection Paradigm Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) deals with the epistemology

2010 Seminar, Santiago, Chile

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31


The international commission on radiological protection icrp deals with the paradigm
The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) deals with the paradigm

32

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2010 Seminar, Santiago, Chile


Icrp basic principles
ICRP Basic Principles (ICRP) deals with the paradigm

Justification of any endeavor or action that entails a change in the level of radiation exposure.

Optimizationof radiation protection and safety.

Restriction of individual doses attributable to a given situation and also of the probability of incurring doses.

33



Teleological of view of

(consequence)

Utilitarian

(utility)

Deontological

(duty)

Doctrines

on

Ethics

Areatic

(virtue)


Teleological of view of

Mind the ends, which

justify the means

Utilitarian

Do the greatest good

for the greatest

number of people

Deontological

Not do unto

others what they

should not do

unto you

Ethical

Aphorisms

Areatic

be virtuous, wise

and prudent,

aim at humanity


Justification of view of

of Actions

Optimization

of Protection

Individual

Restrictions

Protection

Principles

Prudence

(commitment

&

environment)


Justification of view of

=

Teleology

Optimization

=

Utility

Limitation

=

Deontology

Ethics

of

Protection

Prudence

=

Areatic


Teleology justification

The ends or consequences of a protective action should determine its morality, namely whether such act is good or evil

Any decision that alters the radiation exposure situation should do more good than harm

Teleology & Justification


Utility optimization

The morality of protective actions should be judged against its contribution to the overall utility, namely to the best welfare among all people.

The level of radiation protection should be the best under the prevailing circumstances, maximizing the margin of benefit over harm.

Utility & Optimization


Deontology individual protection

The morality of protection should be judged by the goodness or rightness caused by the protective actions on specific individuals, and not only by their overall consequences or utility.

Inequitable protection options should be prevented by restricting individual doses (dose limits, constraints and reference levels)

Deontology & Individual Protection


Areatism precaution

The focal point for judging the moral of protective actions should be their virtuosity rather than their consequences, utility or duty.

Protection should be provided to both, present and future generations and their environment, against scientifically plausible radiation harm even if it is uncertain.

Areatism & Precaution

  • The focal point for judging the moral of protective actions should be their virtuosity and not only their consequences, utility or duty.


Justification should be their virtuosity rather than their consequences, utility or duty.

=

Teleology

Optimization

=

Utility

Limitation

=

Deontology

Ethics

of

Protection

Prudence

=

Areatic


Ethical matrix
Ethical Matrix should be their virtuosity rather than their consequences, utility or duty.

Done

Being done


Objectives of radiation protection of the environment
Objectives of radiation protection of the environment should be their virtuosity rather than their consequences, utility or duty.

  • to maintain biological diversity,

  • to ensure the conservation of species, and

  • to protect the health and status of natural habitats, communities, and ecosystems


ICRP Recommendations should be their virtuosity rather than their consequences, utility or duty.

Published by Elsivier

Volume 37, Issue 1-3, 2008

2008 Recommendations of

the International Commission on Radiological Protection


The international nuclear safety regime

The International Nuclear Safety Regime should be their virtuosity rather than their consequences, utility or duty.

2010 Seminar, Santiago, Chile


The international atomic energy agency iaea is responsible for the global regime
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is responsible for the global regime

48

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2010 Seminar, Santiago, Chile


The IAEA is the only organ within the UN system with specific statutory responsibilities on radiation protection and safety

2010 Seminar, Santiago, Chile


Iaea functions
IAEA Functions specific statutory responsibilities on radiation protection and safety

  • Verifying Peaceful Uses

  • Developing & Transferring Technology

  • Providing for Protection and Safety

2010 Seminar, Santiago, Chile


The nobel peace prize 2005

The Nobel Peace Prize specific statutory responsibilities on radiation protection and safety2005

“For their efforts

[i] to prevent nuclear energy from being used for military purposes and

[ii] to ensure that nuclear energy for peaceful purposes is used in the safest possible way“

2010 Seminar, Santiago, Chile


I specific statutory responsibilities on radiation protection and safetyAEA statutory safety functions

to provide for their application

to establishstandards

to service international conventions

2010 Seminar, Santiago, Chile


Legally binding conventions

Legally Binding specific statutory responsibilities on radiation protection and safetyConventions


Convention on early notification of a nuclear accident
Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident specific statutory responsibilities on radiation protection and safety



Convention on nuclear safety
Convention on Nuclear Safety or Radiological Emergency


Joint Convention on the or Radiological Emergency Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management



International radiation safety standards

International Radiation Safety Standards or Radiological Emergency

2010 Seminar, Santiago, Chile


IAEA Board of Governors or Radiological Emergency

Commission

on Safety Standards

(CSS)

Nuclear Safety Standards

Committee

(NUSSC)

Transport Safety Standards

Committee

(TRANSSC)

Radiation Safety Standards

Committee

(RASSC)

Waste Safety Standards

Committee

(WASSC)

Expert Groups

Expert Groups

Expert Groups

Expert Groups


Long experience 1962 first international standards

Long experience or Radiological Emergency 1962: first international standards.


Safety standards hierarchy

Safety Fundamentals or Radiological Emergency

Safety Requirements

Safety Guides

Safety Standards Hierarchy

2010 Seminar, Santiago, Chile


http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1273c_web.pdfhttp://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1273c_web.pdf


http://www-ns.iaea.org/standards/http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1273c_web.pdf


providing TECHNICAL ASSISTANCEhttp://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1273c_web.pdf

Provisions for the application of the standards: IAEA mechanisms

fostering INFORMATION EXCHANGE

promoting EDUCATION & TRAINING

coordinating RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT

rendering APPRAISAL SERVICES


Chile the international nuclear safety regime

Chilehttp://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1273c_web.pdf&the International Nuclear Safety Regime

2010 Seminar, Santiago, Chile

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66


Chile and the iaea

Chile and the IAEAhttp://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1273c_web.pdf


Full engagement of chile
Full engagement of Chilehttp://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1273c_web.pdf

  • Chile is a contracting party of the safety conventions.

  • Chile participate in the development of international safety standards

  • Chile can make use of appraisal services of the IAEA to check that it is applying correctly international safety standards


Full engagement of cchen
Full engagement of CCHENhttp://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1273c_web.pdf

  • From April 16, 1964, i.e. over nearly half a century, the Comisión Chilena de Energía Nuclear (CCHEN) has assisted the Government in all affairs related with nuclear energy.

  • It has a solid, long-standing, professional experience in nuclear issues


Organization the issue of independence
Organizationhttp://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1273c_web.pdf(the issue of ‘independence’)

  • ‘Independence” is not referred to by the Convention, which indicates that Governments:

    • “shall establish or designate a regulatory body…provided with adequate authority, competence and financial and human resources…”

    • “shall take the appropriate steps to ensure an effective separation between the functions of the regulatory body and those of any other body or organization concerned with the promotion or utilization of nuclear energy.”

      The only real ‘independence’ is provided by knowledge!


Free downloadable references
Free-downloadable Referenceshttp://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1273c_web.pdf

  • UNSCEAR documents (2000, 2001 & 2006 reports)http://www.unscear.org/unscear/en/publications/2000_1, http://www.unscear.org/unscear/en/publications/2000_2, http://www.unscear.org/unscear/en/publications/2001, http://www.unscear.org/unscear/en/publications/2006_1.html, http://www.unscear.org/unscear/en/publications/2006_2.html

  • IAEA Safety Fundamentals http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1273_web.pdf

  • IAEA Basic Safety Standards http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1273_web.pdf

  • IAEA Safety Glossary http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1290_web.pdf


Av. del Libertador 8250http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1273c_web.pdf

Buenos Aires

Argentina

+541163231758

Thank you!

[email protected]

WNU, Daejon, July 2009

20 August, 2014

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