Tobi basics
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TOBI Basics. April 13, 2010. Intonation. Languages superimpose pitch contours on top of word-based stress or tone distinctions. This is called intonation . It turns out that English: has word-based stress and phrase-based pitch accents (intonation)

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TOBI Basics

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Tobi basics

TOBI Basics

April 13, 2010


Intonation

Intonation

  • Languages superimpose pitch contours on top of word-based stress or tone distinctions.

    • This is called intonation.

  • It turns out that English:

    • has word-based stress

    • and phrase-based pitch accents (intonation)

  • The pitch accents are pragmatically specified, rather than lexically specified

    • They change according to discourse context.

  • In English, pitch accents align with stressed syllables.


Pitch accent types

Pitch Accent Types

  • In English, pitch accents can be either high or low

    • H* or L*

  • Examples:High (H*)Low (L*)

  • Yes.Yes?

  • H* L*

  • Magnification.Magnification?

  • As with tones in tone languages, “high” and “low” pitch accents are defined relative to a speaker’s pitch range.

    • My pitch range: H* = 155 HzL* = 100 Hz

    • Mary Beckman: H* = 260 HzL* = 130 Hz


Information

Information

  • Note that there’s a tendency to accent new information in the discourse.

  • 4 different patterns for 4 different contexts:

  • H*

  • H*:Manny came with Anna.

  • H*

  • H*:Manny came with Anna.

  • L*

  • L*:Manny came with Anna?

  • L*

  • L*:Manny came with Anna?

  • Note that:

  • The H* is followed by a falling pitch pattern

  • The L* is followed by a rising pitch pattern


Phrases

Phrases

  • Intonation organizes utterances into phrases

    • “chunks”

  • Intonational phrases are the largest phrases

    • Boundary tones mark the end of intonational phrases

  • In the transcription of intonation, phrase boundaries are marked with Break Indices

    • Hence, TOBI: Tones and Break Indices

  • Break Indices are denoted by numbers

    • 1 = break between words

    • 4 = break between intonational phrases


Tone types

Tone Types

  • There are two types of tones at play:

  • Pitch Accents

    • associated with a stressed syllable

    • may be either High (H) or Low (L)

    • marked with a *

  • Boundary Tones

    • appear at the end of a phrase

    • not associated with a particular syllable

    • may be either High (H) or Low (L)

    • marked with a %


Sample tobi transcription

Sample TOBI Transcription

Tones:L* H%

Breaks: 1 1 14


Question formation

Question Formation

  • Note that not all questions end in L* H%.

  • What’s the intonational difference between these two?

  • Did you see Bob?

  • L*H%

  • Where did you go?

  • H* L%

  • The upsloping intonation only applies to yes/no questions.

  • Also note: “Uptalk”

    • = application of L* H% pattern to declarative sentences.


Downstepping

Downstepping

  • There can be more than one pitch accent within an intonational phrase.

  • Successive H* accents tend to drift downward in F0 within an intonational phrase.

    • = downdrift, or downstepping

    • This provides further evidence for phrasal organization.

  • Downstepped H* accents are denoted with a !H*

  • Anna gave Manny a mango.

  • H* !H* !H* L%

  • There’s a lovely, yellowish, old one.

    • H* !H* !H* L%


Downstepping pitch track

Downstepping Pitch Track

H* !H* !H* L%

=271 Hz=238 Hz =200 Hz


Intermediate phrases

Intermediate Phrases

  • A downstepping pattern can be reset by the presence of an intermediate phrase boundary.

  • Example:

  • It’s lovely, and yellowish, and it’s an old one.

  • H* !H* L- H*L-L%

  • Intermediate phrase boundaries are marked with a break index of 3.

  • At the end of each intermediate phrase is a phrase accent

    • Either Low (L-) or High (H-)


Intermediate phrase transcription

Intermediate Phrase Transcription

H* !H* L- H* L-L%

1 1 13 11 014


One phrase vs two phrases

One Phrase vs. Two Phrases

  • No intermediate phrase boundary:

    • “I” means insert.

  • H* H*L-L%

  • 1 1 4

  • An intermediate phrase boundary, with a L- phrase accent:

    • “I” means insert.

    • H* L- H*L-L%

      3 1 4

  • Note: intermediate sense of disjuncture, between word and intonational phrase.


One phrase vs two phrases1

One Phrase vs. Two Phrases

  • No intermediate phrase boundary:

    • Marianna made the marmalade.

  • L* L* H-H%

  • 1 1 14

  • An intermediate phrase boundary, with a H- phrase accent:

    • Marianna made the marmalade.

  • L* H- L* H-H%

  • 3 1 14


A chunking review

A Chunking Review

utterance

intonational phrase(intonational phrase)...

intermediate phrase(intermediate phrase)...

(pitch accent)nuclear accent

(stressed syllable)stressed syllable


Break indices

Break Indices

  • 4 marks boundaries between intonational phrases

    • associated with a boundary tone (H% or L%)

    • sense of complete disjuncture

  • 3 marks boundaries between intermediate phrases

    • associated with a phrase accent (H- or L-)

    • lesser sense of disjuncture

  • 1 marks boundaries between words

  • 0 marks non-boundaries between words

  • (2 marks uncertainties or apparent mismatches)

    • rarely used


Combinations

Combinations

  • Different combinations of phrase accents and boundary tones have different connotations.

  • L-L%Declarative sentences

  • H-H%Yes/No questions (usually)

  • L-H%Continuations

  • H-L%A “plateau” pattern

  • Upstep: boundary tones after H- are higher than normal.


Upstepping

Upstepping

  • H-H%

  • H-L%

  • “My name is Marianna.”


Bitonal pitch accents

Bitonal Pitch Accents

  • In addition to H* and L*, there are three bitonal pitch accents.

  • Here are the first two:

    • L + H*

    • L* + H

  • The starred element denotes the tone which is associated with the stressed syllable.

  • L + H* = high peak on stressed syllable, preceded by a sharp rise in pitch.

  • L* + H = low pitch target on stressed syllable, followed by a sharp rise in pitch.


H vs l h

H* vs. L + H*

  • Marianna won it.

H*

L + H*

Note: informative vs. contrastive function


L vs l h

L* vs. L* + H

  • Only a millionaire.

L* + H

L-

H%

H*

  • Marianna made the marmalade.

L*

L*

H-H%


L h vs l h

L + H* vs. L* + H

  • There’s a lovely one in Bloomingdale’s.

L* + H

L + H*


Filling the gap

Filling the Gap

  • Another feature of phrase accents is that they fill in the gap between the nuclear accent and the boundary of the intermediate phrase.

L* + H L- H%

1 0 11 4


More downstepping

More Downstepping

  • Bitonal pitch accents can also undergo downstepping.

L + H* L + !H* L + !H*L-L%

1 1 1 1 1 4


Tobi basics

H + !H*

  • The final pitch accent in the TOBI inventory is H+!H*.

  • This one often appears at the beginning of phrases.


Pitch accents round up

Pitch-Accents Round-up

  • There are five pitch accents:

  • H*

  • L*

  • L + H*

  • L* + H

  • H + !H*

  • The * attaches to stressed syllables.

  • The final pitch accent in an intonational phrase is the nuclear accent.

    • Generally perceived as more prominent.


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