专题十二 简单句
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专题十二 简单句 ( 陈述句、疑问句、祈使句、感叹句、倒装句 ) PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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专题十二 简单句 ( 陈述句、疑问句、祈使句、感叹句、倒装句 ). ┃ 陈述句 ┃. 陈述句是用于陈述事实和观点的句子。包括肯定结构和否定结构。肯定句变否定句的基本方法如下: 1 . be 动词的否定式:在 be 动词后面加否定词 not 。如: We aren't classmates. 我们不是同学。 2 .情态动词的否定式:在情态动词后面直接加否定词 not 。如: I can't speak English well. 我英语说得不好。

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专题十二 简单句 ( 陈述句、疑问句、祈使句、感叹句、倒装句 )

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专题十二 简单句(陈述句、疑问句、祈使句、感叹句、倒装句)


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┃陈述句┃

陈述句是用于陈述事实和观点的句子。包括肯定结构和否定结构。肯定句变否定句的基本方法如下:

1.be 动词的否定式:在be动词后面加否定词not。如:We aren't classmates. 我们不是同学。

2.情态动词的否定式:在情态动词后面直接加否定词not。如: I can't speak English well. 我英语说得不好。

3.实义动词的否定式:借助助动词do/ does构成。一般现在时的句子结构为:主语+doesn't/don't +动词原形+其他。如:He doesn't do exercise every day.他不是每天锻炼。

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┃疑问句┃

疑问句的主要交际功能是提出问题,询问情况。分为一般疑问句、选择疑问句、特殊疑问句和反意疑问句。

1.一般疑问句:通常用来询问一件事情是否属实。答句通常是“Yes”或“No”。如:

—Are you tired? —Yes, I am.“你累吗?”“是的,我累。”

2.选择疑问句:指提出两个或两个以上可能的答案供对方选择。如:

Shall we go home or stay here for the night? 我们回家还是待在这里过夜?

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3.特殊疑问句:以疑问词开头,对句中某一成分提问的句子叫特殊疑问句。如:

What do you like most?

你最喜欢什么?

4.反意疑问句:反意疑问句又叫附加疑问句,由两部分组成,前一部分是对事物的陈述(即陈述句),后一部分是简短的提问(即简短疑问句),中间用逗号隔开。要遵循“前否后肯”、“前肯后否”的原则,且两部分的人称和时态要一致。

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中考中常见的反意疑问句的构成情况如下:

(1)陈述部分为Let us…时,问句部分习惯上用“will you?”; 陈述部分为Let‘s…时,问句部分习惯上用“shall we?”如:

Let us go to the cinema, will you?

Let’s go to the cinema, shall we?

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(2)陈述部分为“There (Here)+ be + 主语”时,问句部分用“动词+there(here)?”形式。如:

There are two cakes on the plate, aren't there?

(3)反意疑问句的陈述部分带有little, few, never, hardly, seldom等否定意义的词时,问句部分用肯定式。如:

She seldom goes swimming, does she?

(4)陈述部分的主语为指物的不定代词时,问句部分的主语用it。如:

Something is wrong with the computer, isn't it?

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(5)陈述部分的主语为指人的不定代词时,问句部分的主语用he或 they,这时问句动词的数应和he或 they一致。如:

Someone is knocking at the door, isn't he?

(6)反意疑问句的陈述部分为“I (We) don‘t think(believe, suppose, consider)+ that从句”时,问句部分的动词和主语仍与that从句保持一致且用肯定式。如:

I don't think that he has finished the work on time, has he?

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(7)反意疑问句的陈述部分含有由un­, im­, in­, dis­等否定意义的前缀构成的词语时,陈述部分要视为肯定含义,问句部分用否定形式。如:It is unfair, isn't it?

(8)陈述部分为肯定的祈使句时,反意疑问句部分可用will you/ won't you; 陈述部分为否定的祈使句时,反意疑问句部分只能用will you。 如:

Don't make any noise, will you?

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┃祈使句┃

祈使句是表示请求、命令、劝告、祝愿或建议的句子。否定式是直接在动词原形前加don't。常见的祈使句的基本句型如下:

1.动词原形+其他。 如: Be careful.

2.Do +动词原形(加强语气)。如:

Do be careful next time.

3.加please的祈使句(表示更加客气和礼貌)。如:

Open the door, please.

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┃感叹句┃

感叹句一般用来表示说话时的喜悦、惊讶等情感。英语感叹句常用what或how引导,句末用感叹号。

1.what引导的感叹句。

(1)What+a/an+形容词+单数可数名词(+主语+谓语)!如:What a difficult question it is!

(2)What+形容词+复数可数名词/不可数名词(+主语+谓语)!如:What useful information!

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2.how引导的感叹句。

(1)How+形容词/副词+主语+谓语!如:

How kind they are!

(2)How+陈述句(主语+谓语)!如:

How time flies!

3.what引导的感叹句可以和how引导的感叹句互换。如:

What a good girl! = How good the girl is!

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┃倒装句┃

1.副词位于句首时。here, there, now, then等副词置于句首时,谓语动词常用be, come, go, lie, run。这种倒装的句型结构的主语必须是名词,如果主语是人称代词则不能完全倒装。如:

Here he comes.他来了。

2.only在句首强调状语。如:

Only then did he realize that he was wrong.到那时他才意识到他错了。

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3.以so/neither/nor开头的句子。

此句型说明前面的内容也适用于后者,用倒装句“so/neither/nor+be/助动词/情态动词+主语”。如:

John can't swim, neither can I.

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┃中考透视┃

(  )1.[2012•南充] —________ weather! It's raining!

—Bad luck! We can't go climbing today.

A. What bad B.How bad

C.What fine D.How fine

A 此题考查what引导的感叹句:What +形容词+ 不可数名词!

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(  )2.[2012•孝感] —She's never spoken to a foreigner, ________?

—Yes. She's active and can speak English freely.

A.is she B.has she

C.isn't she D.hasn't she

B 反意疑问句的陈述部分带有little, few, never, hardly, seldom等否定意义的词时,问句部分用肯定式。

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(  )3.[2012•永州] ________ get off the bus before it stops.

A.Don't B.Doesn't

C.Didn't D.Hadn't

(  )4.[2012•济宁] —Peter doesn't know many people here.

—________.

A.So do I B.So am I

C.Neither am I D.Neither do I

A 祈使句的否定形式是在动词原形前面加don't。

D

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(  )5.[2012•淮安] —________ can we find your brother at weekends?

—On the football field.

A.WhenB.Which

C.Why D.Where

D 对地点状语进行提问用疑问副词where。

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