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Light Sport Aircraft Certification by Consensus 30 th FAA Aviation Forecast Conference. Light Sport Aircraft - Defined. Maximum gross weight-1,320 lbs, 1,430 lbs for seaplanes. Maximum stall speed-51 mph (45 knots)

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Light Sport Aircraft Certification by Consensus 30 th FAA Aviation Forecast Conference

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Light sport aircraft certification by consensus 30 th faa aviation forecast conference

Light Sport AircraftCertification by Consensus30th FAA Aviation Forecast Conference

Light sport aircraft defined

Light Sport Aircraft - Defined

  • Maximum gross weight-1,320 lbs, 1,430 lbs for seaplanes.

  • Maximum stall speed-51 mph (45 knots)

  • Maximum speed in level flight with maximum continuous power (Vh)-138 mph (120 knots)

  • Two-place maximum (pilot and one passenger)

  • Single, non-turbine engine, fixed propeller

  • Fixed landing gear, except for an aircraft intended for operation on water or a glider

What do these things look like

What Do These Things Look Like?

  • Airplane (Land/Sea)

  • Gyroplane

  • Airship

  • Balloon

  • Weight-Shift-Control (Trike Land/Sea)

  • Powered Parachute

Light sport aircraft certification by consensus 30 th faa aviation forecast conference

Certification categories

Certification Categories

  • Experimental Light-Sport

    • Existing two-place ultralight trainers

    • Future production kit-built aircraft

      • Non-commercial/recreational use only

  • Special Light-Sport

    • Factory ready – fully manufactured

      • May be used for instruction and rental

Transition of existing ultralight trainers

Transition of Existing Ultralight Trainers

  • Inspected by Designated Airworthiness Representative (DAR)

  • Remedial action taken as necessary

  • Airworthiness certificate issued by FAA

    • Experimental Light-Sport Category

  • N-Number registration and placards

    • Must then be flown only by certificated pilots

    • Approximately 10,000 aircraft

Future production kit aircraft

Future Production Kit Aircraft

  • Experimental Light-Sport Category

  • Sold as kits to any level of completion

    • Meet consensus standards

    • Includes standards for assembly instructions

  • Not believed to be the major growth area for the future LSA fleet at this time

    • Many kit manufacturers products to remain as experimental amateur-built

Fully manufactured aircraft

Fully Manufactured Aircraft

  • Special Light-Sport Category

  • Factory completed aircraft

    • Dealers can complete if part of QA process

  • Meet all applicable consensus standards

  • Can be used for rental or instruction

  • Most industry interest shown in Special-LSA

    • 100 to 200 fixed wing aircraft per month in 2005

    • Estimated to rise to 400 per month by 2007

    • Does not include trikes or powered parachutes

How do we certify these purely recreational aircraft

How do we Certify These Purely Recreational Aircraft?

  • Part 103 – Ultralights

  • Insufficient standardization to allow industry to grow and prosper beyond historic levels

    • No design and performance standard

    • No production standard

    • No quality assurance standard

    • No maintenance or inspection standard

How do we certify these purely recreational aircraft1

How do we Certify These Purely Recreational Aircraft?

  • Part 23 – Airworthiness Standards

  • Part 21 – Certification and Production

    • Proven to be too expensive and cumbersome for very light, inexpensive recreational aircraft

    • Market is more like that of recreational vehicles, motorcycles, and boats, than traditional general aviation aircraft

We needed to strike a balance between no standard at all and full blown federal regulation

We Needed to Strike a Balance Between No Standard at All and Full Blown Federal Regulation

  • All Departments of the US government have been instructed to, whenever possible, delegate standard development to industry consensus standards setting organizations.

How are the standards used for aircraft certification

How Are the Standards Used for Aircraft Certification?

  • No Type Certificate or Production Certificate is issued

  • Manufacturer certifies to FAA that their product complies with applicable standards

  • Manufacturer certifies that the quality assurance and continued airworthiness programs meet the standards and are in place

Many approaches contemplated

Many Approaches Contemplated

  • EAA has long-established relationships with engineering and standardization organizations

  • Due to need for full participation by industry, consumers, and government (not just engineers), several organizations were ruled out due to their internal procedures

Astm deemed to be best suited for arriving at consensus through broad participation

ASTM Deemed to be Best Suited for Arriving at Consensus Through Broad Participation

  • EAA had long experience with ASTM through participation in aviation fuel and lubricants committees

    • Development of EAA’s auto gas STC program and high octane unleaded fuel research

  • Approached ASTM seeking support for Light Sport Aircraft standards in mid-2001

Who or what is astm

Who or What is ASTM?

  • ASTM International is one of the largest voluntary standards development organizations in the world, a trusted source for technical standards for materials, products, systems, and services.

Astm what do they do

ASTM: What Do They Do

  • All stakeholders involved

  • Neutral forum

  • Consensus-based procedures

  • Private and public sector cooperation


  • Aircraft manufacturer

  • Federal agencies

  • Pilot associations

  • Professional societies

  • Maintenance professionals

  • Trade associations

  • Financial organizations

  • Academia

  • Insurance industry

130 technical committees

130 Technical Committees

Ten examples:

  • A1 on Steel, Stainless Steel, and Related Alloys

  • D2 on Petroleum Products and Lubricants

  • E50 on Environmental Assessment

  • F8 on Sports Equipment and Facilities

  • F15 on Consumer Products

  • F24 on Amusement Rides and Devices

  • F25 on Ships and Marine Technology

  • F37 Light Sport Aircraft

  • F38 Unmanned Air Vehicle Systems

  • F39 Normal and Utility Category Airplane Electrical Wiring Systems

Standards and related information why develop them

Standards and Related Information -Why Develop Them?

  • Aid in design, manufacturing, performance, operation and maintenance

  • Advance safety, health, quality

  • Increase public interest, product certainty, and information availability

  • Transfer technology to the marketplace via standards, handbooks, manuals, and training

  • Passports to the global market

Astm committees impacting aircraft design and manufacture

ASTM Committees Impacting Aircraft Design and Manufacture

  • Committee F37 Light Sport Aircraft

    • F37.10 GliderF37.20 AirplaneF37.30 Power ParachuteF37.40 Weight ShiftF37.50 GyroplaneF37.60 Lighter than AirF37.70 Cross CuttingF37.70.02 LSA Audit Task GroupF37.70.10 Hang Glider and Paraglider Tandem Operations Task Group

  • Committee F38 Unmanned Aircraft

    • F38.01 AirworthinessF38.02 Flight OperationsF38.03 Operator Qualifications

  • Committee F39 Airplane Electrical Wiring

    • F39.01 Design, Alteration, and CertificationF39.02 Inspection, Maintenance, and Repair

Standards required by lsa regulation

Standards Required by LSA Regulation

  • Design and Performance

  • Required Equipment

  • Quality Assurance

  • Production Acceptance Tests

  • Aircraft Operating Instructions

  • Maintenance and Inspection Procedures

  • Continued Airworthiness

  • Manufacturer’s Assembly Instructions

    • Experimental Light-Sport Kits Only

F37 light sport aircraft

F37 Light Sport Aircraft

  • Committee and subcommittees have been working for over two years – Chaired by EAA

  • Q4 2004 – All standards completed for the design and manufacture of airplanes and powered parachutes

    • Excluding maintenance and repairman standards

  • FAA has formally accepted the new standards

    • Published in Federal Register March 3, 2005

Other completed standards

Other Completed Standards

  • Airframe Emergency Parachutes

  • Engine Design and Manufacture

  • Gyroplane - design, operating, and airworthiness

    • Gyroplanes are not eligible for Special LSA airworthiness certificates under existing regulations

  • Lighter Than Air – manufacture, quality, and airworthiness

Standards to be completed

Standards To Be Completed

Before Special and Experimental Light-Sport Aircraft can be sold, several standards have yet to be completed and fully balloted.

  • Maintenance and Inspection Procedures

  • Identification and Recording of Major Repairs and Major Alterations

  • Complete in Q2 or Q3 2005

  • FAA policy regarding training and certification of repairmen requires additional work

  • For your reference airplane standards

    For Your Reference:Airplane Standards

    • Design, Performance, Required Equipment, Operating Instructions

      • ASTM F2245-04

    • Quality Assurance, Production Acceptance Testing

      • ASTM F2279-03

    • Continued Airworthiness

      • ASTM F2295-03

    For your reference powered parachute standards

    For Your Reference:Powered Parachute Standards

    • Design and Performance

      • ASTM F2244-03

    • Required Equipment, Operating Instructions

      • ASTM F2243-03

    • Quality Assurance

      • ASTM F2240-03

    • Production Acceptance Testing

      • ASTM F2242-03

    • Continued Airworthiness

      • ASTM F2241-03

    For your reference gyroplane standards

    For Your Reference:Gyroplane Standards

    • Design and Performance, Required Equipment, Operating Instructions

      • ASTM F2352-04

    • Continued Airworthiness

      • ASTM F2415-04

    For your reference lighter than air standards

    For Your Reference:Lighter Than Air Standards

    • Quality Assurance and Production Acceptance Tests

      • ASTM F2353-04

    • Continued Airworthiness

      • ASTM F2354-04

    For your reference optional standards

    For Your Reference:Optional Standards

    • Airframe Emergency Parachutes

      • ASTM F2316-03

    • Engine Design & Manufacture

      • ASTM F2339-04

    Where can i obtain copies of the lsa standards

    Where Can I Obtain Copies of the LSA Standards?

    ASTM International

    100 Barr Harbor Drive

    P.O. Box C700

    West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959

    (610) 832-9585




    • FAA and industry have been favorably impressed

      • Ability of process to draw disparate and competing interests toward consensus

      • Quality of ASTM support for the process

      • Quality of the standards themselves

    • Standards are living documents

      • Must be reviewed at least every two years

      • Updates likely more frequent – contrasts dramatically with regulatory solutions

    Lsa paving the way for others

    LSA – Paving the Way for Others

    • Process has already been expanded to other aeronautical projects where consensus documents can be more complete and timely than regulation

    • F38 – Unmanned Aircraft

    • F39 – Aircraft Electrical Wiring

      • Large number stakeholders

      • Disparate industry and government segments

      • Competing interests

    • A model for the future!!

    Light sport aircraft certification by consensus a model for the future

    Light Sport AircraftCertification by ConsensusA Model for the Future

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