IC Fabrication Overview Procedure of Silicon Wafer Production. Raw material ― Polysilicon nuggets purified from sand. Si crystal ingot. Crystal pulling. Slicing into Si wafers using a diamond saw. A silicon wafer fabricated with microelectronic circuits.
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Procedure of Silicon Wafer Production
Raw material ― Polysilicon nuggets purified from sand
Si crystal ingot
Slicing into Si wafers using a diamond saw
A silicon wafer fabricated with microelectronic circuits
Final wafer product after polishing, cleaning and inspection
Wet Etching (Chemical)
Dry Etching (Plasma)
Ion Implantation and/or Diffusion
Plasma Assisted Deposition
Many Processing Steps are at temperatures to 1200°C
Thin-Film Transistors (TFT)
Displays-Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD), Plasma, LED Backlit, etc.
Photonic-Light Emitting Diodes (LED), Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLED), LASERS, Optical Chips, etc.)
Photovoltaics-Conventional Crystalline and Flexible Thin-Film
Devices and Systems on Flexible Substrates
Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) integration of mechanical elements, sensors, actuators, and electronics on a common silicon substrate through microfabrication technology. Electronics are fabricated using integrated circuit (IC) process sequences (e.g., CMOS, Bipolar, or BICMOS processes)
Micromechanical components are fabricated using compatible "micromachining" processes that selectively etch away parts of the silicon wafer or add new structural layers to form the mechanical and electromechanical devices.