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Fossil Fuels: Oil and Natural Gas. Oil is the most widely used energy source and represents the largest industry on Earth. 19_16.JPG. Global Oil Demand & Supply. Worlds major producers of oil are not major consumers Oil must be imported into countries like U.S. and Europe

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Fossil fuels oil and natural gas
Fossil Fuels: Oil and Natural Gas



19 16 jpg
19_16.JPG largest industry on Earth


Global oil demand supply
Global Oil largest industry on EarthDemand & Supply

  • Worlds major producers of oil are not major consumers

    • Oil must be imported into countries like U.S. and Europe

    • Creates economic burden on these countries


19 18 jpg
19_18.JPG largest industry on Earth


Oil formation
Oil Formation largest industry on Earth

  • Oil was formed by ancient microorganisms who died and were buried by sedimentary rock

  • Heat and pressure turned the dead organisms into oil

  • Oil is made of many hydrocarbon compounds


North american fossil fuel reserves
North American Fossil Fuel Reserves largest industry on Earth


Oil and natural gas
Oil And Natural Gas largest industry on Earth

  • 1940’s oil and natural gas became most important energy sources

  • easier to transport

  • cleaner burning

  • 1993 63% of U.S. energy needs are met by these


19 10 jpg
19_10.JPG largest industry on Earth


19 17 jpg
19_17.JPG largest industry on Earth


19 03 jpg
19_03.JPG largest industry on Earth


19 t05 jpg
19_T05.JPG largest industry on Earth


Oil and natural gas1
Oil and Natural Gas largest industry on Earth

  • Both are hydrocarbons

  • Usually oil and natural gas deposits are found together


19 08 jpg
19_08.JPG largest industry on Earth


Exploration for oil nat gas
Exploration for Oil & Nat. Gas largest industry on Earth

  • Oil deposits are detected by structural traps

    • Geological features that trap oil and natural gas

      ANTICLINE: upward folding of rock

      SALT DOMES: underground columns of salt deposits


Crude oil recovery
Crude Oil Recovery largest industry on Earth

  • Primary Oil Recovery

    • Drill well

    • Pumping out oil that flows by gravity into well


19 07 jpg
19_07.JPG largest industry on Earth


19 09a jpg
19_09a.jpg largest industry on Earth


19 09b jpg
19_09b.jpg largest industry on Earth


North sea off shore oil platforms
North Sea Off-shore Oil Platforms largest industry on Earth

  • Extremely dangerous to work on


19 sbs02 02a jpg
19_SBS02-02a.jpg largest industry on Earth


How is crude oil refined
How Is Crude Oil Refined? largest industry on Earth

  • From heaviest to lightest:

  • Asphalt, wax, naphtha, diesel oil, heating oil, jet fuel, gasoline, cooking gases (propane, butane)


How is crude oil refined1
How Is Crude Oil Refined? largest industry on Earth

Crude oil

  • mixture of many different hydro-carbons that can be separated with distillation


Distillation process
Distillation process largest industry on Earth

  • Animation of distillation process


19 sbs02 03 jpg
19_SBS02-03.JPG largest industry on Earth


Everyday the World uses 86 million barrels of oil; the United States uses 21 million barrels of oil or about 24% of the total.


What does the term peak oil mean
What does the term “Peak Oil” mean? United States uses 21 million barrels of oil or about 24% of the total.


Originally there were about 2.2 trillion barrels of oil in the ground: it took about 150 years to use the first 1.1 trillion barrels, but will take less than 50 years to use the second 1.1 trillion


19 11a jpg
19_11a.jpg the ground: it took about 150 years to use the first 1.1 trillion barrels, but will take less than 50 years to use the second 1.1 trillion


19 11b jpg
19_11b.JPG the ground: it took about 150 years to use the first 1.1 trillion barrels, but will take less than 50 years to use the second 1.1 trillion


Natural gas formation
Natural Gas Formation the ground: it took about 150 years to use the first 1.1 trillion barrels, but will take less than 50 years to use the second 1.1 trillion

  • Similar to oil formation

    • Buried organisms pressurized & heated to a much higher temp

    • Natural Gas is mainly composed of methane


Natural gas overview
Natural Gas: Overview the ground: it took about 150 years to use the first 1.1 trillion barrels, but will take less than 50 years to use the second 1.1 trillion

  • Third most important fuel

    • 24% of world’s consumption

  • Mixture of 50-90% methane and bits of ethane, propane, butane and H2S


Properties of natural gas
Properties of Natural Gas the ground: it took about 150 years to use the first 1.1 trillion barrels, but will take less than 50 years to use the second 1.1 trillion

  • Formed at higher temps than oil

  • CLEANEST FOSSIL FUEL

    • contains almost NO sulfur

    • most electrical power plants in California use natural gas because it pollutes less than oil

    • produces less carbon dioxide than oil


19 t04 jpg
19_T04.JPG the ground: it took about 150 years to use the first 1.1 trillion barrels, but will take less than 50 years to use the second 1.1 trillion


A Big Difference Between Oil and Natural Gas: Natural Gas is often used to generate electricity because it is the cleanest burning fossil fuel while oil is rarely burned to produce electricity



The great shale gas rush
The Great Shale Gas Rush Carelessness

  • Marcellus shale


Fracking
Fracking Carelessness

  • Interactive diagram of fracking


Environmental problems
Environmental Problems Carelessness

  • Air pollution (combustion)

    • increased CO2 levels

    • acid deposition

  • Oil spills (transportation)

  • Habitat Destruction

  • Aquifer contamination


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