Crop biotechnology a weed science perspective
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Crop Biotechnology: a Weed Science Perspective. Harold D. Coble IPM Coordinator, USDA/OPMP [email protected] My Perspective. Reared on small diversified farm in 1940s-50s Very familiar with the drudgery of hand hoeing College degrees in agronomy & weed science

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Crop biotechnology a weed science perspective

Crop Biotechnology:a Weed Science Perspective

Harold D. Coble

IPM Coordinator, USDA/OPMP

[email protected]


My perspective
My Perspective

  • Reared on small diversified farm in 1940s-50s

  • Very familiar with the drudgery of hand hoeing

  • College degrees in agronomy & weed science

  • Weed science extension & research for 30 yrs

  • Always been a farmer at heart

  • A proponent of IPM – USDA IPM Coordinator


And, for many reasons,

I believe in conserving

our natural resources

Photo credit USDA/NRCS


Pest management

is all about crop

yield and quality

preservation and

ease of harvest.

Photo credit USDA/NRCS


Pest management strategies the pams approach
Pest Management StrategiesThe PAMS Approach

  • Prevention

    • Cultural practices to keep pests out

  • Avoidance

    • Cultural practices to avoid or resist pest impact

  • Monitoring

    • What is present and how many

  • Suppression

    • Kill ‘em if you need to


Pest suppression options
Pest Suppression Options

  • Physical

    • Hand Weeding

    • Mechanical Cultivation

    • Other (mulches, , traps, etc.)

  • Biological

    • Insects, Bacteria, Fungi, Biochemicals

  • Chemical

    • Chemical Pesticides

    • Pheromones


Chemical weed control
Chemical Weed Control

  • Historical non-selective chemicals (NaCl)

  • Key to chemical use is selectivity

    • Development of 2,4-D in 1940s

    • Research programs for selective herbicides

    • Rapid expansion of chemical use in 1960s &70s

    • ~100% major crop acreage treated today


Attaining selectivity
Attaining Selectivity

  • Massive chemical screening programs

  • Selection in crop breeding programs

    • Tracy soybean

  • Non-transgenic methods

    • Sethoxydim-tolerant corn (tissue culture)

    • STS soybean

  • Transgenic technologies (Biotech)


Growth of biotech acres of total u s acres
Growth of Biotech Acres% of Total U.S. Acres


Biotech crop uses
Biotech Crop Uses

% of Acres


Western Corn Rootworm Adult

Photo credit USDA/ARS


Why the rapid adoption herbicide tolerant crops
Why the Rapid Adoption?Herbicide Tolerant Crops

  • Lower cost of weed control, even with technology fees

  • Greatly simplified control procedures

  • Higher degree of weed control

  • Fewer chemical applications = less trips

  • Promotes more sustainable cultural practices

    • Less tillage, less compaction, narrower rows

  • Societal aspects (pride, landowner acceptance)



And prevent disasters such as this

Photo credit USDA/NRCS


Why the rapid expansion insect protection pips
Why the Rapid Expansion?Insect Protection (PIPs)

  • High degree of control of target species

  • Safety to beneficial species

  • Human and environmental safety

    • Food/Feed safety

    • Applicator safety

    • Wildlife safety

  • Simplicity of control measures


PIPs aimed at the

major insect pest

complexes

Photo credit USDA/ARS


Plant-incorporated

protectants designed

to avoid harm to

beneficials

Photo credit USDA/ARS


What s the downside herbicide tolerant crops
What’s the Downside?Herbicide Tolerant Crops

  • Weed species shifts if integrated approach not used

    • Prevention and avoidance strategies

    • Continued field monitoring

    • Alternative chemical mode of action

  • Reduced availability of alternative MOAs

  • Temptation to just plant and spray


Weed

resistance is

a fact of life

Photo Craig Chism, Univ. of TN


What s the downside pips
What’s the Downside?PIPs

  • Risk of resistance development/selection

    • Major concern of organic community

  • Increased cost if populations below EIL

    • Protection present whether needed or not

  • Have led to secondary pest resurgence

    • Stinkbugs in cotton


Tarnished Plant Bug

Photo credit USDA/ARS


Where do we go from here?

Tacos,

Chicken feed,

or Plastic??

Photo credit USDA/NRCS


Meat, Milk, or Pharmaceuticals???

Photo credit USDA/NRCS


We’ve only just begun…

Photo credit USDA/NRCS


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