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“The Power of the Spoon” Sports Nutrition. Terri Brownlee MPH, RD, LDN Regional Director of Nutrition Bon App é tit Management Company [email protected] Carbohydrate foods are essential for sports performance! .

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“The Power of the Spoon”Sports Nutrition

Terri Brownlee MPH, RD, LDN

Regional Director of Nutrition

Bon Appétit Management Company

[email protected]

high intensity activities require carbohydrate
High intensity activities require carbohydrate
  • Provides energy to cells for activity and body functions such as breathing, brain activity and digestion.
  • Primary fuel for muscles
  • Excess  stored as glycogen

stored as fat

  • Sources include
    • Sugars: sugar, honey, molasses, fruit
    • Complex: grains, rice, pasta, cereals, potatoes and vegetables
but make them count
Less sugar / processed

Choose all meals

Whole grain breads

Whole grain pasta


Baked / roasted potatoes


Brown rice

Whole grains

Fruits / vegetables

During exercise >60min

Dilute carbohydrate

Sports drinks

Water plus sports bar


But make them count
whole food carbohydrates
Whole Food Carbohydrates

Health Benefits:

-- ↑ fullness

--  fiber

--  satiety

--  nutrition

(nutrient density)

carbohydrate for recovery
Carbohydrate for Recovery!
  • Fluid replacement is #1 priority
    • Water is best
  • Need to start refueling within 15-30 minutes
    • Carbohydrate → replenish muscle fuel
  • Consume carbohydrates + protein within 2 hours

Protein aids in reloading muscle fuel

    • 1 part protein to 3 parts carbohydrate
more protein more muscle
More protein ≠ more muscle
  • Maintains body tissue and in combination with exercise is needed to build muscle tissue.
  • Can be used for energy…when other fuel is not available.
  • Sources include
    • Choose more lean: skinless poultry, fish, shellfish, lean red meat/pork/veal, skim milk dairy
    • High fat: marbled meats, poultry with skin, whole dairy products, eggs, bacon, sausage
adequate protein
Adequate protein
  • Adequate protein and with energy from carbohydrate + training = muscle
  • Adequate protein:
    • Adequate .5 grams/lb
    • Maximum 1 gram/lb

FOOD is still the best source of protein

Total CALORIE intake is important (+500/day)

protein sources
Protein Sources
  • Meats (poultry, fish, beef) = 7 grams/oz
  • Eggs 1 whole or 3 whites = 7 grams
  • Vegetarian “meats” = 5-21 grams/serving
  • Starch and grain group = 3 grams/serving
  • Vegetable group = 2 grams/serving
  • Milk and yogurt group = 8 grams/serving

(8 oz “meat”, 2 cups grains, 2-1/2 cups veg, 3 cups milk → 108 grams protein)

too much or too little fat is not healthy
Too much or too little fat is not healthy
  • Concentrated source of calories
    • Use healthy fats to meet basic energy needs
    • Healthy fats useful in meeting high energy needs
    • Fat burns in flame of carbohydrate
  • Fat before exercise…↓ fat intake close to exercise or → sluggish, slow, bloated, full

→ cramping, GI distress

choose healthy fats
Choose healthy fats
  • Use small amounts at most meals
  • High fat / high calorie foods ↔ leaner choices
    • Pizza with salad / fruit
    • Grilled chicken with french fries
  • Choose
    • Olive and canola oil, nuts, low fat condiments, low fat salad dressings
you must eat for optimal sports performance
You Must EAT for Optimal Sports Performance
  • Requires All
    • Carbohydrate

At all meals/snacks

    • Fat

Focus on types more than amount

    • Protein

Need regular intake…most important in rest and recovery

Fruits and Vegetables

Whole grains and starches

Lean protein

for optimal sports performance
For Optimal Sports Performance
  • Consider preparation methods
    • Choose more baked, broiled, grilled, steamed
    • Occasional fried…but not daily
  • Consider portions
    • Large meals need 4-6 hours to digest…best in recovery time
    • Eat smaller portions, less fat closer to event
  • Timing is essential
meals and snacks
Meals and Snacks

Pre-exercise—prepare your body all day!

  • Do not skip meals
  • Eat within 1 hour of waking
  • Eat 4-6 times per day…every 3-4 hours
  • Drink fluids all day
  • Closer to exercise, focus on carbohydrate rich foods that are lower in fat and protein.
high performance choices snacks
High performance choicesSnacks

Consume 150-300 calories 1/2-1 hour before exercise.

Choose high carbohydrate, low-fat option with a small amount of protein is best.


  • Trail mix
  • Granola bar with nuts
  • Fruit & low-fat cheese or yogurt
  • Crackers, bread or bagel with

low fat cheese, turkey, tuna or peanut butter

  • Cereal & skim milk
  • Sports bars

Find what works and stick with it!

high performance choices breakfasts
High performance choices Breakfasts
  • Lower sugared cereals, skim/1% milk, fruit
  • Whole grain bagel, PB or low fat cream cheese, fruit, yogurt
  • Hot cereals topped with nuts, sprinkle of brown sugar, fruit, skim milk
  • Egg white omelet filled with veggies, whole wheat toast or breakfast potato, fruit, skim milk
  • Yogurt smoothie with whole fruit, whole wheat toast
high performance choices stir fry
High performance choices Stir-fry
  • Ask for minimal oil or sautéed in broth or water
  • Choose lean meats—go for seafood, chicken, tofu or tempeh
  • Get more veggies—even pull from salad bar to get the mix you like
  • Pick a whole grain rice or noodle
  • Have it your way with sauces---ask for sauces on the side so you can control how much you get
high performance choices deli
High performance choices Deli
  • Choose whole wheat breads for the best nutrition and fiber
  • Fill with lean meats—go for sliced turkey, chicken or ham
  • Go easy on red meats, processed meats and mixed options like tuna and chicken salad
  • Keep cheese to 1 slice
  • Pack on the traditional veggies such as lettuce, tomato and onion but branch out to cucumbers, peppers, sprouts, roasted vegetables, avocados…whatever your mind can imagine
  • Go for mustard, ketchup, relishes, hummus as spread over mayonnaise
  • Pair with nutrient dense sides—veggies, salad, fruits, yogurt
high performance choices pasta
High performance choices Pasta
  • Choose whole wheat pasta
  • Choose less pasta bulk up with vegetables
  • Pair with vegetables and lean proteins for volume and fullness
  • Beware of the “stuffings”---most lasagnas, raviolis, manicottis and tortellini are loaded with full fat diary products
  • Stick with tomato-based sauces
high performance choices salad bar
High performance choices Salad Bar
  • Start with loads of fresh dark greens
  • Add a “rainbow” of colors from a variety of fruits and vegetables
  • For best energy and lasting fullness include
    • Whole grains or beans
    • Lean protein such as chicken, turkey, tuna, tofu, cottage cheese or low fat cheese
    • Healthy fat from nuts, seeds, tofu
  • Go for low fat dressing, vinegar with oil or small portion of full fat dressings.
  • Be ware of high calorie pre-mixed salads, full-fat cheese and croutons
high performance choices grill
High performance choices Grill
  • Choose burger occassionally and when you do
    • Choose whole grain buns with plenty of lettuce, tomato, onion
  • Opt for grilled chicken, fish or vegetarian burgers
  • Add fruits, vegetables or side salad for balance
  • Be cautious with high calories condiments and toppings such as cheese, bacon and mayonnaise
  • Bon Appetit uses 100% nonhydrogenated canola oil in all our fryers
thirst is not your best guide for hydration
Thirst and dry mouth occur at 1-5% loss of body water

As soon as mouth is moist, thirst decreases

Losses can be significant…2 quarts per hour

1 pound lost = 16 ounces fluid

Drink before, during and after events


Drink extra the days before…64+ ounces

16-20 oz. 2-3 hours before the event

8-16 oz. immediately before the event

Aim for 4-8 oz. every 15-20 minutes during the event

As much as you can after the event (20 oz for every pound lost)

Thirst is not your best guide for hydration
beer alcohol coke caffeine
Beer = alcohol, Coke = caffeine
  • Alcohol and caffeine have diuretic effect
    • Has negative effect on hydration status
    • Do not to consider these in total fluid intake
  • Total daily fluid intake
    • .3 X current weight = ounces fluid per day
  • Best fluids water, milk, 100% juice—save sports drinks for the field
examine your attitudes and beliefs
Examine Your Attitudes and Beliefs
  • Whole foods provide the best nutrients
  • Carbohydrate, protein and fat all provide essential fuel and nutrients
  • Timing and regular food intake is critical
  • The best diet is not “perfect” but rather moderate and balanced
  • Rigid thinking regarding nutrition can have serious consequences
  • Supplements can not make up for a poor diet
honor hunger and recognize fullness
Honor Hunger and Recognize Fullness

Retraining your body to recognize…



Satiety … takes time

disordered eating red flags
Preoccupation with weight, food, calories… etc

Refusal to eat …restrictions

Anxiety and “fat talk”

Feeling “fat” despite weight loss or reasonable weight

Denial of hunger

Eating differently in public

Food rituals

Avoidance of food situations

Use of laxatives etc.

Withdrawal from friends and activities especially re: food

Food, weight, dieting become primary focus

Disordered eating involves less frequent practice but slippery slope to full blown eating disorder.

Disordered eating…red flags
helping each other
Helping Each Other

Watch your “diet” talk…be an example

Encourage non-dieting principles

Encourage healthy focus

Recognize and refer to professionals

Use: Campus resources

Bon Appetit resources


getting help
Getting help
  • Seek professional advice
  • Expect normal anxiety
  • Prepare for the long haul. Creating a healthy relationship with food is a process.
  • Terri Brownlee, MPH, RD, LDN
    • Nutrition information
    • Portion Gallery
    • Basic calorie guide
    • On line journal

Terri Brownlee MPH, RD, LDN

Regional Director of Nutrition

Bon Appétit Management Company

[email protected]