Information literacy process models the big6 webquests pathways to knowledge
1 / 18

Information literacy Process models The Big6 WebQuests Pathways to Knowledge - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Information literacy Process models The Big6 WebQuests Pathways to Knowledge. Linda C. Zvitkovitz. ISTC 651 Fall 2009. Table of Contents (with hyperlinks). Title Slide The Big Six Introduction Background Curricular Alignment Scaffolding WebQuests Introduction Background

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.

Download Presentation

Information literacy Process models The Big6 WebQuests Pathways to Knowledge

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript

Information literacy Process modelsThe Big6WebQuestsPathways to Knowledge

Linda C. Zvitkovitz

ISTC 651

Fall 2009

Table of Contents (with hyperlinks)

  • Title Slide

  • The Big Six Introduction

    • Background

    • Curricular Alignment

    • Scaffolding

  • WebQuests Introduction

    • Background

    • Curricular Alignment

    • Scaffolding

  • Pathways to Knowledge Introduction

    • Background

    • Curricular Alignment

    • Scaffolding

  • Similarities and Differences

  • Conclusion

  • Resources

Big6 Introduction

  • Big6 is a student-centered, information problem-solving strategy that enables students to handle any problem, assignment, decision or task.

  • The Six Stages are:

    • Task Definition

    • Information Seeking Strategies

    • Location and Access

    • Use of Information

    • Synthesis

    • Evaluation

Image from

Table of Contents

Big 6 Background

  • Developed in 1990 by educators Mike Eisenberg and Bob Berkowitz

  • Perhaps the most widely-used model

  • I chose the Big6 model because I know that it is used throughout many schools in Harford County and I believe it is a complete model that fosters collaboration between classroom teachers and media specialists. There is much support available for teaching the Big6

  • It’s stages align well with many of the AASL Standards for the 21st Century

  • Positively reviewed (Carey, 2003;James-Maxie, 2007).

  • Journal article on differentiation with Big6 (Jansen, 2009)

  • Many supportive tools available (Tooley, 2005).

Table of Contents

Big 6 Introduction

Big 6 Curricular Alignment

Table of Contents

Big 6 Introduction

Big 6 Scaffolding

The beauty of the Big6 model is the clarity and focus it provides students, while putting them in control of their information seeking, analyzing and synthesizing. The structure of Big6 assignments should keep students on task and does allow for scaffolding. LMS’s and teachers can begin by offering lots of assistance throughout a Big6 project and then can expect students to be gradually more independent. For example, for the first few Big6 experiences, the students might be given a limited choice of resources to use, and later they could be given more independence in locating, accessing and evaluating their sources.

Another great feature is that there is a related model, Super3, which is suitable for students in younger grades. Students introduced to Super3 can certainly transition easily to Big6.

Table of Contents

Big 6 Introduction

WebQuests Introduction

  • A WebQuest is an inquiry-oriented lesson format in which most or all the information that learners work with comes from the web.

  • Characteristics of WebQuests:

    • Require higher level thinking

    • Make good use of the web.

    • Are doable and interesting

  • Critical Attributes of WebQuests:1. Introduction2. Task3. Process4. Information Sources5. Evaluation6. Conclusion

  • Image from

    Table of Contents

    WebQuests Background

    • The model was developed by Bernie Dodge at San Diego State University in February, 1995 with early input from Tom March.

    • Tens of thousands of teachers have used WebQuests to engage their students in the kinds of thinking that the 21st century requires. The model has spread around the world, with special enthusiasm in Brazil, Spain, China, Australia and Holland. (Dodge, 2007)

    • Much research has been done regarding the effectiveness of WebQuests and teachers’ perceptions about them (Zheng, Perez, Williamson, & Flygare, 2008). Several studies indicate that WebQuests increase collaboration skills and enhance student attitudes (Abbitt & Ophus, 2008; Maddux & Cummings, 2007; Hassanien, 2006).

    • One of the main reasons I selected WebQuests for this analysis is their popularity with educators and students, which became apparent to me when I saw how many WebQuests are being shared online.

    Table of Contents

    WebQuests Introduction

    WebQuestsCurricular Alignment

    • WebQuests offer students much guidance, providing a specific task, the resources to be used and the evaluation criteria. However, the process can still address the following AASL standards:

    Table of Contents

    WebQuests Introduction

    WebQuests Scaffolding

    • WebQuests certainly include the characteristics needed for scaffolding. If designed well, they provide students with a purpose and clear instructions that should keep students on task and build momentum. Efficiency is clearly a goal of a good WebQuest, because students are given a limited number of resources to use and direct links to all or most of them are provided. Students should not experience uncertainty at any stage of the WebQuest because expectations and grading criteria are also provided.

    • Because WebQuests are carefully designed by educators to guide students through their analyses, they can be created specifically for students of certain ability levels. Scaffolding occurs as students gradually experience more challenging WebQuests.

    Table of Contents

    WebQuests Introduction

    Pathways to Knowledge Introduction

    • This model stresses the importance of the student being at the center of the information-seeking process, which is a cyclical rather than linear process.

    • “The Pathways Model is like a roadmap for navigating through the information-seeking process. Sometimes you will take one path, sometimes another—how you find, analyze and use information depends on many things including how you learn, the resources you have available, your task, and what you may already know about your topic.” (Follett, 2000)

    • The authors emphasize that appreciation and evaluation should occur at every stage

    Image from

    Table of Contents

    Pathways to Knowledge Background

    • Follet’s Information Skills Model

    • Developed by Marjorie L. Pappas and Ann E. Tepe in 1997.

    • Integrates some of Kuhlthau’s (1993) ideas about the affective domain in students during research process

    • Discussed in literature (Callison, 2002), but not as much as the other two models

    • I chose this model because aligns directly with AASL standards, and while it is similar to the Big6 model, it more strongly emphasizes metacognition, which I think is an important aspect of the information. While the complete model can look a bit intimidating, the basic stages can be simplified for younger students.

    Table of Contents



    Pathways to Knowledge Curricular Alignment

    Table of Contents



    Pathways to Knowledge Scaffolding

    • The Pathways to Knowledge process allows for scaffolding in much of the same ways as the Big6 model; it provides structure while keeping the student’s thought processes at the center of focus. Also, LMS’s and teachers can work together to design assignments that gradually allow for more student independence (particularly in the variety of information sources they may use). Perhaps the greatest feature of the Pathways to Knowledge process, in regard to scaffolding, is the emphasis on metacognition. It is stressed that students should be appreciating and evaluating at every stage of the information-seeking process. These reflections should help students build confidence and momentum.

    Table of Contents

    Pathways Introduction

    Similarities and Differences

    Table of Contents


    After completing this analysis of the Big6, WebQuests and Pathways to Knowledge processes, I feel ready to collaborate with classroom teachers of all levels and subject matters to create stimulating, thought-provoking assignments that align with the AASL standards for the 21st century. To summarize what I have learned, I would use the Big6 for creating student-centered assignments, and, if it were more appropriate to design a task that led students directly to certain online sources, I would create WebQuests. While creating and implementing these models, I would incorporate the ideas behind the cyclical Pathways to Knowledge process.

    Because the Big6 model is used throughout Harford County and there are many support materials for its instruction available, I certainly plan to implement it as a media specialist. I also love the idea of the Super3, which helps very young students become familiar with the idea of stages within the information seeking process. I also prefer this model because some of the others had too many stages or stages that were just too wordy for students to remember.

    I look forward to creating WebQuests as well for many reasons. The reality is that students will not often have the prolonged amounts of time in the school library needed to carry out the entire research process, and WebQuests provide very efficient use of time. It is true that creating a good WebQuest might require a lot of my time up front, but once created, it provides each student with direct, individual guidance, and it can be used repeatedly for years. Other benefits to WebQuests are that they require critical thinking and use online resources in a limited and “safe” manner. Finally, there are many ready-to-use WebQuests available for sharing online.

    I plan to enhance both models, however, by implementing the philosophies behind Pathways to Knowledge. For example, I will emphasize that students should reflect and evaluate themselves at every stage of the Big6 model and to remember that they can revisit any stage of the process as needed. I will keep in mind the importance of “Appreciation” from this model when creating WebQuests. The Pathways model implies that students work best when they feel some connection to a task, for example, so I would be sure to make the introduction to a WebQuest visually appealing and as meaningful to the students as possible. No matter which model I used, I would try to remember the importance of the final reflection students should do, judging both the process and the product of their work and that of their peers. The Pathways model is the only one of the three that mentions peer-evaluation and again, I would try to implement this step into both WebQuests and Big6 assignments.

    Table of Contents

    References part 1

    Abbitt, J., & Ophus, J. (2008). What We Know About the Impacts of WebQuests: A Review of Research. AACE Journal, 16(4), 441-456. Retrieved

    from Education Research Complete database.

    Big6 (2004). The Big6: Information & technology skills for student achievement. Retrieved November 3, 2009 from

    Callison, D. & Lamb, A. (2009). Information age inquiry. Retrieved November 3, 2009 from

    Callison, D. (2002). Information Use Models (Part II). School Library Media Activities Monthly, 19(2), 36-39,51. Retrieved from ERIC database.

    Carey, J.O. (2003, January). Michael Eisenberg and Robert Berkowitz’s Big6 information problem-solving model. School Library Media Activities

    Monthly,19(5), 24.

    Dodge, B. (2007). WebQuest.Org. Retrieved November 21, 2009 from

    Follett Software Company (2000). Pathways to Knowledge. Retrieved November 21, 2009 from

    Hassanien, A. (2006). An evaluation of the webquest as a computer‐based learning tool. Research in Post-Compulsory Education, 11(2), 235-250.

    InTime (2001). Information processing. Retrieved November 21, 2009 from

    Table of Contents

    References Part 2

    Kuhlthau, C. C. (1993). Seeking meaning: A process approach to library and information services. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

    Kunimitzu (2008). Pathways to knowledge. Retrieved November 21, 2009 from

    James-Maxie, D. (2007). Information Literacy Skills in Elementary Schools: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Instruction Delivery Systems,

    21(1), 23-26. Retrieved from Education Research Complete database.

    Jansen, B. (2009). Differentiating Instruction in the Primary Grades with the Big6. Library Media Connection, 27(4), 32-33. Retrieved from

    Education Research Complete database.

    Jansen, B. (2005). Evaluation: The Forgotten Stage. Library Media Connection, 24(3), 24-25. Retrieved from Education Research Complete


    Maddux, C., & Cummings, R. (2007). WebQuests: Are They Developmentally Appropriate?. Educational Forum, 71(2), 117-127. Retrieved from

    Education Research Complete database.

    Tooley, M. (2005). Big6 TurboTools and Evaluation. Library Media Connection, 24(3), 27-28. Retrieved from Education Research Complete


    Zheng, R., Perez, J., Williamson, J., & Flygare, J. (2008). WebQuests as perceived by teachers: implications for online teaching and learning.

    Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 24(4), 295-304. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2729.2007.00261

    Table of Contents

  • Login