Chapter 22 Organic and Biological Molecules. 22.1 – Alkanes: saturated hydrocarbons. Uses of organic chemistry: Biochemistry Medicinal chemistry Molecular biology Synthetics Industry (petroleum) And more!. 22.1 – Alkanes: saturated hydrocarbons.
Number of carbons IUPAC prefix
1. Find the longest uninterrupted carbon chain. Depending on how many carbons there are, this determines the prefix (here, it is ______hexane)
2. Branches are named by dropping the -ane suffix and adding an -yl suffix
3. The position of the branch must be indicated by finding its position on the main carbon chain. The goal is to always have the lowest numbering possible
We could call this 3-ethylhexane or 4-ethylhexane. Since the numbering is smaller in 3-ethylhexane, it is the suitable name
4. The naming goes alphabetically. If there are more than one of a substituent (branch), the prefixes –di and –tri are used. They do not count when alphabetizing.
(incomplete combustion leads to CO and others)
ethene (although it is often called acetylene)
Cannot have isomers
1. The higher priority goes to the higher atomic number
2. If there is a tie, you go to the next atom in the line (count double bonds as two single bonds to the same atom )
Less energy in bonds
More energy in bonds
has a higher boiling point
Same molar mass, difference in BP’s
come from the H-bonding!