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Infection Control. Warning: blood and guts to follow !. Infection Control. Microorganisms Infectious Disease Chain of Infection Nosocomial Infection Disease Control Environment. Bacteria Viruses Fungi Protozoa. Can grow in or on an animal or plant and cause diseases.

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Infection control

Infection Control

Warning:

blood and guts to follow !


Infection control1
Infection Control

  • Microorganisms

  • Infectious Disease

  • Chain of Infection

  • Nosocomial Infection

  • Disease Control

  • Environment


Microorganisms that cause disease

Bacteria

Viruses

Fungi

Protozoa

Can grow in or on an animal or plant and cause diseases.

Host: animal or plant that provides life support to another organism.

Microorganismsthat cause disease


Microorganisms
Microorganisms

  • Disease: Any change from the normal structure or function in the human body.

  • Infection: Growth of a microorganism on or in a host.


Disease
Disease

  • Disease occurs only when the microorganism causes injury to the host


Pathogen
Pathogen

  • A disease producing microorganism.

    • Multiply in large numbers and cause an obstruction

    • Cause tissue damage

    • Secrete substance that produce effects in the body

      • Exotoxins ( high body temp, nausea, vomiting)


Bacteria
Bacteria

  • Strep Throat

  • Bacterial Pneumonia

  • Food Poisoning


Protozoan
Protozoan

  • Trichomonas Vaginalis

  • Plasmodium Vivax

    • Malaria


Viruses
Viruses

  • Common cold

  • Mononucleosis

  • Warts


Fungi
Fungi

  • Athlete’s Foot

    • Tinea pedis

  • Ringworm


6 steps of infection

Encounter

Entry

Spread

Multiplication

Damage

Outcome

6 Steps of Infection


Chain of infection
Chain of Infection

  • Host

  • Infectious Microorganism

  • Mode of Transmission

    • Vector/ Fomite

  • Reservoir


Nosocomial infections
Nosocomial Infections

  • Infections originating in the hospital; an infection not present before admittance to the hospital.


Nosocomial infections1
Nosocomial Infections

  • Iatrogenic Infection

  • Compromised Patients

  • Patient Flora

  • Hospital Environment

  • Bloodborne Pathogens



Universal precautions
Universal Precautions

  • Since there is no way you can know if a person is infected, you should ALWAYS use universal precautions:

  • Wash your hands

  • Wear gloves

  • Handle sharp objects carefully

  • Properly clean all spills

  • Wear mask, eye protection, and apron if splashing is a possibility.


Airborne precautions
Airborne Precautions

  • Patients infected with pathogens that remain suspended in air for long periods on aerosol droplets or dust.

  • TB, Chickenpox, Measles

  • Respiratory protection must be worn when entering pt room.

  • Pt should wear mask.


Droplet precautions
Droplet Precautions

  • Patients infected with pathogens that disseminate through large particulate droplets expelled from coughing, sneezing, or even talking.

  • Rubella, Mumps, Influenza

  • Surgical mask must be worn when within 3 feet of the pt.

  • Pt should wear a mask.


Contact precautions
Contact Precautions

  • Patients infected with pathogens that spread by direct contact with the pt or by indirect contact with a contaminated object (bedrail, pt dressing).

  • Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Hepatitis A, Varicella, Flesh-eating Virus

  • All PPE should be used and equipment must be disinfected after use.


Controlling the spread of disease
Controlling the spread of Disease

  • Chemotherapy

  • Immunization

  • Asepsis

    • Medical

    • Surgical

  • Disinfectants


Physical methods of controlling diseases
Physical Methods of Controlling Diseases

  • Handwashing

  • Standard Precautions

    • Gloving

    • Gowns

    • Face masks

    • Eyewear


Handwashing
Handwashing

  • Single most important means of preventing the spread of infection.

  • 7 to 8 minutes of washing to remove the microbes present, depending on the number present.

  • Most effective portion of handwashing is the mechanical action of rubbing the hands together.


Types of nosocomial infections
Types of Nosocomial Infections

  • Iatrogenic Infection – related to physician activities

  • Compromised Patients - weakened resistance; immunosuppressed

  • Patient Flora - microbes in healthy people

  • Contaminated Hospital Environment

  • Bloodborne Pathogens – Hepatitis B and HIV


So what and who cares
So What, and Who Cares?

  • Students and Techs are challenged both physically and mentally by the microbial world. In this world of newly found, life-threatening diseases, education has become the key to survival. Health care providers must be committed to infection control so that diseases can be conquered!




Fingernail compliance
Fingernail Compliance

  • No more than ¼ inch long

  • No artificial nails

  • No chips on nail polish


When do you wash your hands
When do you wash your hands?

  • When hands are visibly soiled

  • Before and after patient contact

  • After removal of gloves

  • After using the toilet

  • After blowing or wiping the nose

  • Upon leaving an isolation area


When do you wash your hands1
When do you wash your hands?

  • Before Eating

  • How long do you wash?

    • 10-15 Seconds


When should sharps boxes be emptied
When should sharps boxes be emptied?

  • When they are 2/3 full


What are some examples of proper usage of gloves
What are some examples of proper usage of gloves?

  • Wear gloves when you anticipate possible contamination

  • When handling chemicals like disinfectants for cleaning

  • Remove gloves immediately after performing task and performing hand hygiene

  • Hallways should be considered a

    “glove free zone”


When do you use disinfectant jell
When do you use disinfectant jell?

  • Before and after patient care when hands are not visibly soiled

  • Before performing invasive procedures for hand decontamination

  • To decontaminate hands after contact with patient’s intact skin, i.e., after taking vital signs



How do you know equipment is clean
How do you know equipment is clean?

  • Clean equipment is covered with plastic

  • A clean bed or gurney is dressed

  • Medical equipment is cleaned between patients or when soiled

  • Not sure ? Always clean and disinfect.



What are examples of standard precautions1
What are examples of Standard Precautions?

  • Use of PPE (personal protective equipment)

  • Protective housekeeping

  • Practicing good hygiene




Review

Microorganisms

Disease

Pathogen

Bacteria

Viruses

Fungi

Protozoan

6 Steps of Infection

Chain of Infection

Nosocomial Infection

Controlling Disease

Physical Methods of Controlling Diseases

Handwashing

Standard Precautions

Universal Precautions

Review


Questions
Questions?

  • Infection Control


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