Debating Enormity. Nuclear Proliferation in the 21 st Century http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= dDTBnsqxZ3k. Part 1: Debating International Relations. What are we talking about?. The “fiction” of the nation-state
Nuclear Proliferation in the 21st Century
The Nation-State. Power is legitimate.
HEGEMONY- amount of power a state has =s influence. Balance of power is how hegemony is distributed. Unipolar, bipolar, multipolar.
Commercial Peace Theory-free trade pacifies international relations, globalization scholars, cosmopolitanism as cultural linkage. Status quo states want to keep, revisionist states want change.
Military option is more likely when a state is highly threatened by the target state’s potential acquisition of nuclear weapons
Normative costs. International norm against use of force, Article 56 of Protocol I Additional to Geneva Conventions (1977) specifically prohibits targeting nuclear plants.
First modern weapon used on April 22 and 23, 1915. Cylinders of liquefied chlorine gas opened into the wind at Ypres in WW I.
1977 EnMod Treaty- the Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques. Less than majority of states have signed on.
Soviet Union-claimed ended program but Yeltsin admitted in 1992 had continued substantial levels. Uncertainty about facilities and stockpiles continue.
Syria-biotechnical infrastructure capable of production but not yet known to be weaponized.
October 2001, letters sent to members of Congress and the media containing anthrax. No sophisticated dispersal mechanism. Killed 5, infected 18 others
Russia largest stockpile, financial difficulties destroying. Potential non-secure stockpiles.
“The central point is that the three kinds of weapons differ in important ways with respect to both productions and lethality. In general, chemical weapons are the easiest to make but are unlikely to produce the cataclysmic levels of destruction that could result from the use of biological or nuclear weapons. By contrast, nuclear weapons are the most difficult to produce but also the most destructive both in lethality and in the speed by which death and destruction could occur. Biological weapons share the most frightening aspects of each of the other two: biological weapons can be made almost as easily as chemical weapons, yet their destructive potential could approach that of nuclear weapons.” James J. Wirtz, Planning the Unthinkable, 2000