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Gender Differences Structural. Male rh = 1442g (n=7), callosal area 672 mm^2 Male MH (n=5) 1511g, 801 (differs sign from Male RH) Females RH (n=20) 1269g, 655 Fem MH (n=10), 1237g, 697 (differs from fem RH). Absolute vs Relative Size Differences.

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slide2
Male rh = 1442g (n=7), callosal area 672 mm^2
  • Male MH (n=5) 1511g, 801 (differs sign from Male RH)
  • Females RH (n=20) 1269g, 655
  • Fem MH (n=10), 1237g, 697 (differs from fem RH)
absolute vs relative size differences
Absolute vs Relative Size Differences
  • Bermudez & Zatorre (2001, n=137) found larger splenium (back of corpus callosum) in females.
slide4
FEMALES
  • Larger language areas -Harasty et al, 1997
  • Larger lateral frontal area – Schlaepfer et al, 1995
  • More densely packed neurons in temporal lobe, Witelson et al 1995
  • MALES
  • Larger medial frontal, Goldstein et al, 2001
  • Larger cingulate, Paus et al 1996
  • Larger amygdala and hypothalamus, Swaab et al, 1985
  • More white matter volume, Gur et al, 1999
  • More neurons overall, Pakkenberg & Gunderson, 1997
reliable functional sex differences
Reliable Functional Sex Differences
  • Men are better at
    • Visuospatial tasks
    • Higher mathematics
    • Aggression
  • Females are better at:
    • Verbal tasks

Hemispheric asymmetries may be less marked in females compared to males

slide7
APHASIAS occur most often in women with LH anterior damage. In men, they occur more frequently with LH posterior damage.
  • APRAXIA, or difficulty in selecting hand movements, is associated with LH frontal damage in women and with LH posterior damage in men.
functional neuroimaging differences
Functional Neuroimaging Differences
  • EEG males more asym – Corsi-Cabrera et al, 1997; MEG Reite et al, 1995
slide9

Gender differences

VHS: Brain Sex #1 (Anything you…)

problem solving tasks favoring women
Problem-Solving Tasks Favoring Women
  • Women tend to perform better than men on tests of perceptual speed, in which subjects must rapidly identify matching items for example, pairing the house on the far left with its twin
slide12
On some tests of ideational fluency, for example, those in which subjects must list objects that are the same color, and on tests of verbal fluency, in which participants must list words that begin with the same letter, women also outperform men
slide13
Women do better on precision manual tasks-that is, those involving fine-motor coordination-such as placing the pegs in holes on a board:
problem solving tasks favoring men
Problem-Solving Tasks Favoring Men
  • Men tend to perform better than women on certain spatial tasks. They do well on tests that involve mentally rotating an object or manipulating it in some fashion, such as imagining turning this three-dimensional object
slide18
or determining where the holes punched in a folded piece of paper will fall when the paper is unfolded:
slide19
Men also are more accurate than women in target-directed motor skills, such as guiding or intercepting projectiles:
slide20
They do better on disembedding tests, in which they have to find a simple shape, such as the one on the left, once it is hidden within a more complex figure:
slide22
Cognitive behavior
  • MOTOR
  • Target throwing & catching M>F Hall & Kimura, 1995
  • Fine motor skills F>M Nicholson & Kimura, 1996
  • SPATIAL
  • Mental rotation M>F Collins & Kimura, 1997
  • Spatial navigation M>F Astur et al, 2002
  • Geographical knowledge M>F Beatty & Troster, 1987
  • Spatial memory F>M McBurney et al, 1997
  • MATH APTITUDE
  • Computation F>M Hyde et al, 1990
  • Mathematical Reasoning M>F Benbow, 1988
  • PERCEPTION
  • Sensory sensitivity F>M Velle, 1987
  • Perceptual speed F>M Majeres, 1983
  • Facial/Body expression F>M, Hall 1984
  • Visual Recognition memory F>M McGivern et al, 1998
  • VERBAL
  • Fluency F>M Hyde & Linn, 1988
  • Verbal Memory F>M McGuinness et al, 1990
mechanism s responsible for gender differences
Mechanism(s) responsible for Gender Differences
  • Interhemispheric: Females have greater callosal connectivity
  • Intrahemispheric: Language organization differs by gender
  • Strategic: Females employ verbal strategies more often (even for spatial tasks)
  • Mediated: Difference due to other trait variables such as handedness, familial hand, cognitive style, maturation, hormonal!)
testosterone levels
TESTOSTERONE LEVELS
  • On a test in which women usually excel (bottom), no relation is found between testosterone and performance.
slide35

LDT With Distractors

TARGET + (DISTRACTER)

slide38

Lexical Decision Results:

Example of Treatment Effects

Post

NF

+

Pre

-

slide39

Within Condition

+

Nonsense (nonverbal) Shapes

callosal relay model
Callosal Relay Model

Info is processed by the hemisphere specialized for the material or task.

  • input transferred to specialized hemisphere
  • VF Differences reflect interhemispheric transfer time and info degradation.
direct access
Direct Access

Hemisphere that gets the stimulus processes it

  • VF differences reflect relative ability/efficiency of hemispheres.
  • Both hemispheres do everything more or less well
slide62

Race Inequality

B

LVF-Lh

100

H

B

J

J

RVF-Lh

H

B

J

H

Race

H

B

J

80

H

B

J

H

B

J

H

B

J

Percentiles

60

H

B

J

H

B

J

H

B

J

40

H

B

J

H

B

J

H

B

J

20

H

B

J

H

B

J

J

H

B

150

200

250

300

350

Reaction Times

slide64

Alerting Network

(Norepinephrine)

Orienting Network

(Acetylcholine)

Conflict Network

(Dopamine)

slide65

*

time

VALID CUE

CONGRUENT TARGET

slide66

*

*

DOUBLE CUE

INCONGRUENT TARGET

time

slide68

LANT-LH

LANT-RH

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

Pre

Post

Pre

Post

Pre

Post

Pre

Post

Pre

Post

Pre

Post

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