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Gender Differences Structural. Male rh = 1442g (n=7), callosal area 672 mm^2 Male MH (n=5) 1511g, 801 (differs sign from Male RH) Females RH (n=20) 1269g, 655 Fem MH (n=10), 1237g, 697 (differs from fem RH). Absolute vs Relative Size Differences.

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Absolute vs relative size differences
Absolute vs Relative Size Differences

  • Bermudez & Zatorre (2001, n=137) found larger splenium (back of corpus callosum) in females.


  • FEMALES

  • Larger language areas -Harasty et al, 1997

  • Larger lateral frontal area – Schlaepfer et al, 1995

  • More densely packed neurons in temporal lobe, Witelson et al 1995

  • MALES

  • Larger medial frontal, Goldstein et al, 2001

  • Larger cingulate, Paus et al 1996

  • Larger amygdala and hypothalamus, Swaab et al, 1985

  • More white matter volume, Gur et al, 1999

  • More neurons overall, Pakkenberg & Gunderson, 1997



Reliable functional sex differences
Reliable Functional Sex Differences

  • Men are better at

    • Visuospatial tasks

    • Higher mathematics

    • Aggression

  • Females are better at:

    • Verbal tasks

Hemispheric asymmetries may be less marked in females compared to males



Functional neuroimaging differences
Functional Neuroimaging Differences In men, they occur more frequently with LH posterior damage.

  • EEG males more asym – Corsi-Cabrera et al, 1997; MEG Reite et al, 1995


Gender differences In men, they occur more frequently with LH posterior damage.

VHS: Brain Sex #1 (Anything you…)


Problem solving tasks favoring women
Problem-Solving Tasks Favoring Women In men, they occur more frequently with LH posterior damage.

  • Women tend to perform better than men on tests of perceptual speed, in which subjects must rapidly identify matching items for example, pairing the house on the far left with its twin






Problem solving tasks favoring men
Problem-Solving Tasks Favoring Men tests:

  • Men tend to perform better than women on certain spatial tasks. They do well on tests that involve mentally rotating an object or manipulating it in some fashion, such as imagining turning this three-dimensional object


Block design
Block Design tests:






  • Cognitive behavior mathematical reasoning:

  • MOTOR

  • Target throwing & catching M>F Hall & Kimura, 1995

  • Fine motor skills F>M Nicholson & Kimura, 1996

  • SPATIAL

  • Mental rotation M>F Collins & Kimura, 1997

  • Spatial navigation M>F Astur et al, 2002

  • Geographical knowledge M>F Beatty & Troster, 1987

  • Spatial memory F>M McBurney et al, 1997

  • MATH APTITUDE

  • Computation F>M Hyde et al, 1990

  • Mathematical Reasoning M>F Benbow, 1988

  • PERCEPTION

  • Sensory sensitivity F>M Velle, 1987

  • Perceptual speed F>M Majeres, 1983

  • Facial/Body expression F>M, Hall 1984

  • Visual Recognition memory F>M McGivern et al, 1998

  • VERBAL

  • Fluency F>M Hyde & Linn, 1988

  • Verbal Memory F>M McGuinness et al, 1990


Mechanism s responsible for gender differences
Mechanism(s) responsible for mathematical reasoning:Gender Differences

  • Interhemispheric: Females have greater callosal connectivity

  • Intrahemispheric: Language organization differs by gender

  • Strategic: Females employ verbal strategies more often (even for spatial tasks)

  • Mediated: Difference due to other trait variables such as handedness, familial hand, cognitive style, maturation, hormonal!)


Testosterone levels
TESTOSTERONE LEVELS mathematical reasoning:

  • On a test in which women usually excel (bottom), no relation is found between testosterone and performance.


Methodologies
Methodologies mathematical reasoning:


Frequency Effects mathematical reasoning:


Note: Contralateral Pathway mathematical reasoning:


Dichotic Listening mathematical reasoning:



Lexical Decision Task :Word or not? mathematical reasoning:

+ home


Lexical Decision Task -- example nonword mathematical reasoning:

toyn +



LDT With Distractors mathematical reasoning:

TARGET + (DISTRACTER)


LDT with Distractors mathematical reasoning:

+

park

stop



Lexical Decision Results: mathematical reasoning:

Example of Treatment Effects

Post

NF

+

Pre

-


Within Condition mathematical reasoning:

+

Nonsense (nonverbal) Shapes


Between Condition mathematical reasoning:

+


Primary Color Task mathematical reasoning:

+


Shade Task mathematical reasoning:

+


Faces - Head-on mathematical reasoning:

+


Faces - Rotated mathematical reasoning:

+


Abstract concepts
Abstract mathematical reasoning: Concepts


Concrete concepts
Concrete Concepts mathematical reasoning:


Callosal relay model
Callosal Relay Model mathematical reasoning:

Info is processed by the hemisphere specialized for the material or task.

  • input transferred to specialized hemisphere

  • VF Differences reflect interhemispheric transfer time and info degradation.


Direct access
Direct Access mathematical reasoning:

Hemisphere that gets the stimulus processes it

  • VF differences reflect relative ability/efficiency of hemispheres.

  • Both hemispheres do everything more or less well


Uncrossed, LVF-Lh mathematical reasoning:


Crossed, RVF-Lh mathematical reasoning:


Redundant Target, mathematical reasoning:Between, Uncrossed


Race Inequality mathematical reasoning:

B

LVF-Lh

100

H

B

J

J

RVF-Lh

H

B

J

H

Race

H

B

J

80

H

B

J

H

B

J

H

B

J

Percentiles

60

H

B

J

H

B

J

H

B

J

40

H

B

J

H

B

J

H

B

J

20

H

B

J

H

B

J

J

H

B

150

200

250

300

350

Reaction Times


Alerting Network mathematical reasoning:

(Norepinephrine)

Orienting Network

(Acetylcholine)

Conflict Network

(Dopamine)


* mathematical reasoning:

time

VALID CUE

CONGRUENT TARGET


* mathematical reasoning:

*

DOUBLE CUE

INCONGRUENT TARGET

time


LANT-LH mathematical reasoning:

LANT-RH

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

Pre

Post

Pre

Post

Pre

Post

Pre

Post

Pre

Post

Pre

Post


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