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Counting Quarks. University of Southampton. Our goal is to learn about the particles of nature using real data from accelerators We will not explore the theory too much just what you see…

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Presentation Transcript

Counting Quarks

University of Southampton


Our goal is to learn about the particles of nature using real data from accelerators

We will not explore the theory too much just what you see…

Nuclear matter (“hadrons”) is made of quarks – we are going to experimentally determine how many quarks there are…


How to vote using your zapper
How to vote using your zapper real data from accelerators

you can change your vote (until polling closes) by pressing another button

this flashes green when you vote

click a button (0-9 or A-J) to vote for your answer

it will not accept invalid answers

please don’t press the GO button as it causes problems


A question to test your zapper
A question to test your zapper real data from accelerators

What did you drink with your breakfast this morning?

  • Tea

  • Coffee

  • Fruit Juice

  • Water

  • Other

  • Nothing


OPAL real data from accelerators


Some Simple Events real data from accelerators


Strong Nuclear Force real data from accelerators

The force between quarks grows with distance !!!!!

Energy builds up between them until many quarks are produced that arrange themselves into strong force neutral hadrons – we see jets…


Taus are heavier electrons again – 3500 times heavier… real data from accelerators

They decay to quarks and electrons/muons in the detector…. Yuk!


The Weak Nuclear Force (Beta Decay) real data from accelerators

Neutrinos only interact by the weak force – once produced we never see them again…

The likelihood that a W will decay to quarks or leptons is the same.. If we produce Ws and count the relative probabilities of outcomes we can count how many quarks there are…


WW Events at LEP real data from accelerators

The decays are so fast you’ll only see the final products in the detector…

Each W can decay to e, m, t plus a neutrino

LEPTONIC DECAY

Each W can decay to two quarks

HADRONIC DECAY


What sort of ww decay is this
What sort of WW decay is this? real data from accelerators

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this1
What sort of WW decay is this? real data from accelerators

Double hadronic decay

Mixed

Double leptonic decay

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this2
What sort of WW decay is this? real data from accelerators

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this3
What sort of WW decay is this? real data from accelerators

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this4
What sort of WW decay is this? real data from accelerators

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this5
What sort of WW decay is this? real data from accelerators

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this6
What sort of WW decay is this? real data from accelerators

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this7
What sort of WW decay is this? real data from accelerators

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this8
What sort of WW decay is this? real data from accelerators

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this9
What sort of WW decay is this? real data from accelerators

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


Events 11-20 (30 sec) real data from accelerators


What sort of ww decay is this10

10 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this11

10 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this12

10 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this13

10 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this14

10 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this15

10 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this16

10 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this17

10 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this18

10 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this19

10 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


Events 21-30 (15 sec) real data from accelerators


What sort of ww decay is this20

7 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this21

7 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this22

7 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this23

7 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this24

7 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this25

7 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this26

7 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this27

7 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this28

7 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this29

7 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


Events 31-40 (15 sec) real data from accelerators


What sort of ww decay is this30

7 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this31

7 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this32

7 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this33

7 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this34

7 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this35

7 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this36

7 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this37

7 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this38

7 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this39

7 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


Events 41-50 (15 sec) real data from accelerators


What sort of ww decay is this40

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this41

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this42

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this43

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this44

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this45

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this46

8 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this47

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this48

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this49

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


Events 51-60 (15 sec) real data from accelerators


What sort of ww decay is this50

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this51

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this52

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this53

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this54

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this55

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this56

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this57

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this58

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this59

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this60

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this61

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this62

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this63

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this64

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this65

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this66

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this67

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this68

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this69

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this70

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this71

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this72

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this73

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this74

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this75

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this76

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this77

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this78

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this79

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this80

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this81

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this82

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this83

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this84

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this85

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this86

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this87

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this88

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this89

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this90

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this91

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this92

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this93

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this94

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this95

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this96

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this97

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this98

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this99

5 real data from accelerators

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


Results real data from accelerators

We know there are three sorts of leptons (e,m,t) so there are 9 ways to get double leptonic events

DL = 9

If there are N quarks we expect N double hadronic events

DH = N

& mixed decays

M = 2 x 3 x N = 6 N

We saw ?

2

2

We saw ?

We saw ?

We got…

N=? N=? N=?


What should we have got? real data from accelerators

LEP has enough energy to make four quarks

BUT – there is an additional factor of three because each quark has three different sorts of charges associated with the strong force

RED

GREEN

BLUE

up

down

charm

strange

N = 6


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