Counting Quarks
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Counting Quarks. University of Southampton. Our goal is to learn about the particles of nature using real data from accelerators We will not explore the theory too much just what you see…

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Counting Quarks

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Counting quarks

Counting Quarks

University of Southampton


Counting quarks

Our goal is to learn about the particles of nature using real data from accelerators

We will not explore the theory too much just what you see…

Nuclear matter (“hadrons”) is made of quarks – we are going to experimentally determine how many quarks there are…


How to vote using your zapper

How to vote using your zapper

you can change your vote (until polling closes) by pressing another button

this flashes green when you vote

click a button (0-9 or A-J) to vote for your answer

it will not accept invalid answers

please don’t press the GO button as it causes problems


A question to test your zapper

A question to test your zapper

What did you drink with your breakfast this morning?

  • Tea

  • Coffee

  • Fruit Juice

  • Water

  • Other

  • Nothing


Counting quarks

OPAL


Counting quarks

Some Simple Events


Counting quarks

Strong Nuclear Force

The force between quarks grows with distance !!!!!

Energy builds up between them until many quarks are produced that arrange themselves into strong force neutral hadrons – we see jets…


Counting quarks

Taus are heavier electrons again – 3500 times heavier…

They decay to quarks and electrons/muons in the detector…. Yuk!


Counting quarks

The Weak Nuclear Force (Beta Decay)

Neutrinos only interact by the weak force – once produced we never see them again…

The likelihood that a W will decay to quarks or leptons is the same.. If we produce Ws and count the relative probabilities of outcomes we can count how many quarks there are…


Counting quarks

WW Events at LEP

The decays are so fast you’ll only see the final products in the detector…

Each W can decay to e, m, t plus a neutrino

LEPTONIC DECAY

Each W can decay to two quarks

HADRONIC DECAY


What sort of ww decay is this

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this1

What sort of WW decay is this?

Double hadronic decay

Mixed

Double leptonic decay

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this2

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this3

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this4

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this6

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this7

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this8

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this9

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


Counting quarks

Events 11-20 (30 sec)


What sort of ww decay is this10

10

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this11

10

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this12

10

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this13

10

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this14

10

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this15

10

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this16

10

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this17

10

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this18

10

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this19

10

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


Counting quarks

Events 21-30 (15 sec)


What sort of ww decay is this20

7

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this21

7

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this22

7

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this23

7

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this24

7

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this25

7

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this26

7

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this27

7

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this28

7

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this29

7

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


Counting quarks

Events 31-40 (15 sec)


What sort of ww decay is this30

7

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this31

7

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this32

7

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this33

7

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this34

7

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this35

7

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this36

7

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this37

7

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this38

7

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this39

7

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


Counting quarks

Events 41-50 (15 sec)


What sort of ww decay is this40

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this41

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this42

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this43

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this44

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this45

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this46

8

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this47

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this48

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this49

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


Counting quarks

Events 51-60 (15 sec)


What sort of ww decay is this50

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this51

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this52

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this53

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this54

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this55

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this56

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this57

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this58

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this59

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this60

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this61

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this62

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this63

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this64

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this65

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this66

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this67

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this68

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this69

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this70

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this71

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this72

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this73

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this74

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this75

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this76

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this77

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this78

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this79

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this80

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this81

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this82

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this83

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this84

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this85

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this86

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this87

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this88

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this89

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this90

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this91

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this92

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this93

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this94

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this95

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this96

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this97

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this98

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


What sort of ww decay is this99

5

What sort of WW decay is this?

  • Double hadronic decay

  • Mixed

  • Double leptonic decay


Counting quarks

Results

We know there are three sorts of leptons (e,m,t) so there are 9 ways to get double leptonic events

DL = 9

If there are N quarks we expect N double hadronic events

DH = N

& mixed decays

M = 2 x 3 x N = 6 N

We saw ?

2

2

We saw ?

We saw ?

We got…

N=? N=? N=?


Counting quarks

What should we have got?

LEP has enough energy to make four quarks

BUT – there is an additional factor of three because each quark has three different sorts of charges associated with the strong force

RED

GREEN

BLUE

up

down

charm

strange

N = 6


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