Chapter 13
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Chapter 13. The Sections Go Their Ways. The South. Cotton was the most important Southern crop and America’s major export South not impacted by immigration, urbanization, or industrialization- it remained primarily agricultural

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Chapter 13

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Chapter 13

Chapter 13

The Sections Go Their Ways


The south

The South

  • Cotton was the most important Southern crop and America’s major export

  • South not impacted by immigration, urbanization, or industrialization- it remained primarily agricultural

  • Older sections of Virginia, Maryland, and North Carolina were shifting from tobacco to wheat


The south1

The South

  • Edmund Ruffin found that marl introduced into the soil increased wheat yields

  • Southerners also imported Peruvian guano as fertilizer

  • New methods of farming, crop rotation, and improved drainage increased crop yields


Economics of slavery

Economics of Slavery

  • The increased importance of cotton increased the importance of slavery

  • Price of slaves rose until by 1850 a slave was worth as much as $1800

  • Crop value per slave rose from $15 to $125

  • High prices for slaves in the Deep South caused a shift of slaves from older regions to “down the river”


Economics of slavery1

Economics of Slavery

  • A great migration of slaves occurred as they were shipped further west from the seaboard states

  • Slave trading became big business- but impacted slave families as husbands, wives, and children were separated (mostly in the Old South)


Economics of slavery2

Economics of Slavery

  • Because it was so lucrative, the business of slave trading lost its social stigma and men of high social station engaged in it

  • Since slaves were so expensive, holders of slaves became smaller in number

  • By the Civil War, only 1 in 4 Southern white farmers owned any slaves at all


Economics of slavery3

Economics of Slavery

  • Small farmers grew the staple crops- they might have a slave or two toiling alongside

  • “Poor white trash” lived in squalor in the mountains eking out what they could from the poor soil

  • Large plantations grew commercial crops and usually had profits of %10 or more


Economics of slavery4

Economics of Slavery

  • Slavery resulted in the South’s failure to develop locally owned marketing and transportation facilities

  • Transportation cost the South about $15 per bale of cotton- most of the money going to Northern capitalists

  • Intelligence and skills of slaves wasted- in fact, South less than %80 of whites literate


Antebellum plantation life

Antebellum Plantation Life

  • Plantations were like small villages

  • Southern homes were centers of manufacturing- turning out clothing and other textiles

  • Wives often ran the plantation

  • White children were raised by white family and slaves

  • Slave children normally did not begin work until age 6-7


Sociology of slavery

Sociology of Slavery

  • Treatment of slaves depended on the master- some did not whip while others whipped at least once a month

  • Average of 20 lashes for small offences such as shirking work and 39 or more for running away

  • Some slaves were whipped to death but by 1821 laws allowed masters to be charged with murder if a slave died from abuse- conviction resulted in a large fine (one woman was fined $214.28)


Sociology of slavery1

Sociology of Slavery

  • Most owners provided adequate clothing, food, and housing (slaves were valuable)

  • Slave infant mortality was twice that of whites and life expectancy about 5 years less than whites

  • The US was only place where slavery grew due to natural increase (only %5 of slaves to the New World went to North America- ½ million grew to 4 million by 1860)


Sociology of slavery2

Sociology of Slavery

  • Masters generally felt responsible for their slaves and slaves were dependent and often imitative of their masters

  • From their close proximity arose every type of human relationship

  • Slaves adapted to the system while attempting to resist it


Sociology of slavery3

Sociology of Slavery

  • Because slaves often appeared happy and were not overtly rebellious, whites persuaded themselves slaves were content with the system

  • As Northern opposition to slavery mounted, the system hardened towards slaves

  • The fear of revolt caused harsh treatment


Sociology of slavery4

Sociology of Slavery

  • The 1822 Denmark Vesey Conspiracy resulted in the execution of 37 slaves with another 30+ deported

  • After a Louisiana revolt, 16 slaves were decapitated

  • The 1831 Nat Turner revolt in Virginia killed 57 whites

  • After the Turner revolt, the South made it harder for masters to free slaves


Sociology of slavery5

Sociology of Slavery

  • Slavery did not flourish in cities and cities did not flourish in regions of slavery- the South had few large cities

  • Southerners disliked free blacks as it proved blacks were more than childlike savages and they set a bad example

  • Free blacks were barred from occupations where they might cause trouble


Sociology of slavery6

Sociology of Slavery

  • Some slaves were smuggled into the South from Africa but the navies of the US, Britain, and France patrolled African coast


Psychological effects of slavery

Psychological Effects of Slavery

  • The injustice of slavery impacted both slave and master

  • Slaves resisted through revolts, shirking work, and passive resistance

  • Slavery gave weak and shiftless whites a scapegoat

  • Slavery reinforced the patriarchal system


Manufacturing in the south

Manufacturing in the South

  • Small flour and lumber mills flourished

  • Iron and coal were mined

  • By 1825 textile manufacturing was on the rise due to water power

  • Less than %15 of manufactured goods came from the South

  • Almost all goods and services came from the North


Northern industrial juggernaut

Northern Industrial Juggernaut

  • In the North – rapid industrial growth

  • 1859 – Northeast produced $1.27 billion out of $2 billion

  • Steam power facilitated by rich coal fields in Pennsylvania

  • American society open to innovation

  • Inventions included vulcanization of rubber, sewing machine, cylinder press, screw-making machine, friction match, and the lead pencil


Northern industrial juggernaut1

Northern Industrial Juggernaut

  • Machines substitute for shortage of skilled labor

  • By 1850, US led world in manufacture of goods by precision instruments

  • Expansion westward uncovered new resources

  • Workers open to labor-saving devices (Luddites)

  • Society more open to corporations


Northern industrial juggernaut2

Northern Industrial Juggernaut

  • Immigration stimulated manufacturing

  • Gold finds added to supply of capital

  • European investors financed American businesses

  • Improvements in transportation made goods cheaper

  • Middle class = expanding national markets


Nation of immigrants

Nation of Immigrants

  • Jobs created by industrial growth attracted immigrants

  • Attitudes of “native” population

  • Social, racial, and economic rivalries

  • Immigrants brought about end of hiring young women (Waltham System)

The Irish


How wage earners lived

How Wage Earners Lived

  • Low wages and crowding increased slums in cities

  • City services virtually non-existent

  • Factory towns - small gardens possible

  • Cities – even grass unusual

  • All members of poor families had to labor to survive

  • Unions established with varying results – general unionization did not arrive until after Civil War

  • Unionization seemed “un-American” – wage labor looked down upon


Progress and poverty

Progress and Poverty

  • Despite wealth in US and average standard of living, urban worker existed in conditions comparable to slavery

  • Wealth gap increased


Foreign commerce

Foreign Commerce

  • Increase in both imports and exports

  • Exported more raw materials and imported more manufactured goods

  • Britain remained biggest trading partner

  • Sailing packets facilitated movement of people and freight

  • NE made good living through whaling

  • Advancements in ships- the clipper ship


Foreign commerce1

Foreign Commerce

  • Clipper ships provided swift passage to California gold fields

  • Cut transit time from 5-6 months to 3 months

  • Speed impacted by weight – did not carry bulky goods – carried specialty goods

Clipper Ship


Steam conquers the atlantic

Steam Conquers the Atlantic

  • Oceangoing steamships came later than river ships due to fuel and stability constraints

  • Soon eclipsed the clipper ships (average speed versus bursts)

  • Construction of iron ships spelled end of dominance of American shipbuilders

  • Steamships resulted in drastic decrease in cost of freight and passage


Steam conquers the atlantic1

Steam Conquers the Atlantic

  • Conditions for poorer passengers poor- crowded and foul

  • Allowed even the poorest ability to migrate


Canals railroads

Canals & Railroads

  • Canal building increased internal and external trade

  • By 1840- 3,326 miles of canals

  • Traffic on Erie Canal 20 times greater in 1851 than 1836


Canals railroads1

Canals & Railroads

  • First railroad built in England

  • By 1840- US had 3,328 miles of RR

  • Most track lay east of Appalachian Mts.

  • Engineering problems with track and locomotives made growth of RR slow process

  • By 1860- US had 30,636 miles of RR

  • By 1855- RR connected east with St. Louis and Chicago


Financing the railroads

Financing the Railroads

  • Railroad construction required immense amounts of labor and capital

  • Private investors supplied about ¾ of the money used in railroads prior to 1860

  • Funds were raised periodically through the use of “calls” – sometimes if a railroad made money that money could be used to complete the project


Financing the railroads1

Financing the Railroads

  • Railroads in rich regions had no problem attracting capital- other regions demanded “mixed enterprises” (half the capital coming from state and local government)

  • Most often Congress blocked federal aid to railroads but that changed with the Illinois Central which was granted land (200 foot right-of-way with strips of land 1 mile wide and 6 miles deep)


Financing the railroads2

Financing the Railroads

  • By mortgaging the land or selling it to farmers, the Illinois Central raised the funds to construct the RR

  • This led to more grants to more than 40 RRs

  • Some businessmen made more money supplying the RRs than in running them


Railroads and the economy

Railroads and the Economy

  • Agriculture increased as farmers could now transport crops to market at affordable rates

  • Farmers moved into formerly inaccessible territories

  • Railroads sold farmland at low rates

  • Access to markets caused farmers to become more efficient and increase output


Railroads and the economy1

Railroads and the Economy

  • New tools were invented to make farming easier such as the steel plowshare and the mechanical reaper by McCormick

  • Wheat output rose nearly 75% due to the reaper

  • Cities such as Buffalo and Cincinnati prospered but Chicago grew the most due to railroads


Railroads and the economy2

Railroads and the Economy

  • Railroads stimulated more than just agriculture- such as Investment banking and bar and sheet iron production

  • The proliferation of trunk lines and canals led to a sharp drop in freight and passenger rates which helped increase commerce

  • Food that fed the factories on the east coast came from the west via railroads

  • European demand for American foodstuffs made American farms boom


Railroads and sectional conflict

Railroads and Sectional Conflict

  • Increased production and cheap transportation boosted the Western farmer’s income and standard of living

  • Changes had their costs

    • Farmers became dependent on middlemen

    • Buying a farm required more capital due to higher land costs and cost of machinery

    • More farmers became laborers and tenant farmers


Railroads and sectional conflict1

Railroads and Sectional Conflict

  • The West and East became more integrated due to railroads and business

  • These economic ties became cultural and many regions became anti-slave

  • The South failed to forge links with the Northwest as it had no like transportation system- the South relied on the Mississippi River


The eve of the civil war

The Eve of the Civil War

  • The mid-1840s to the mid-1850s was a period of remarkable economic growth due to railroads, canals, and the settlement of new land

  • This boom took a turn for the worse after the Crimean War and Europe’s lack of demand for American food- the Panic of 1857

  • Demand for Southern cotton remained high and the South believed it was immune to downturns and could be better off out of the Union (“King Cotton”)


Chapter 13

Quiz

  • This was the major American export in the middle of the 1800’s Cotton

  • During the middle 1800’s, this was the economics of slavery Dramatic rise in price

  • This was the approximate number of white planters/farmers with slaves 25%

  • Much of the South’s cotton trade was controlled by them Northern capitalists


Chapter 13

Quiz

  • Generalization about the treatment of slaves is difficult because of this Treatment by owners differed

  • Nat Turner became notorious for this Slave rebellion

  • This was the Southern reaction to the Nat Turner Rebellion Made it harder to free slaves

  • This most accounted for the lack of cities and industry in the South Slavery


Chapter 13

Quiz

  • Manufacturing in the South can be described as this small scale

  • By the 1850’s, the US led in type of manufacturing precision tools

  • Wage laborers survived in the cities because of this all family members worked

  • Clipper ships were popular for this reason provided fast transportation


Chapter 13

Quiz

  • Railroad growth lagged initially due to this Technology problems

  • Before 1860, ¾ of railroad investment came from her private investors

  • This was the first railroad to benefit from federal support Illinois Central

  • The steel plowshare and his mechanical reaper helped make US farmers more productive Cyrus McCormick


Chapter 13

Quiz

  • This competed the most with the railroads canals

  • The decreasing importance of this increased conflict between the South and the other sections Mississippi River

  • How would the US economy be described in the 1840’s – 1850’s? Remarkable growth


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