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Synthetic aperture confocal imaging. Marc Levoy Billy Chen Vaibhav Vaish. Mark Horowitz Ian McDowall Mark Bolas. technologies large camera arrays large projector arrays camera–projector arrays. optical effects synthetic aperture photography synthetic aperture illumination

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Synthetic aperture confocal imaging

Marc Levoy

Billy Chen

Vaibhav Vaish

Mark Horowitz

Ian McDowall

Mark Bolas

outline
technologies

large camera arrays

large projector arrays

camera–projector arrays

optical effects

synthetic aperture photography

synthetic aperture illumination

synthetic confocal imaging

applications

  • partially occluding environments
  • weakly scattering media

examples

foliage

murky water

Outline
stanford multi camera array wilburn 2002
Stanford Multi-Camera Array[Wilburn 2002]
  • 640 × 480 pixels ×30fps × 128 cameras
  • synchronized timing
  • continuous video streaming
  • flexible physical arrangement
ways to use large camera arrays
Ways to use large camera arrays
  • widely spaced light field capture
  • tightly packed high-performance imaging
  • intermediate spacing synthetic aperture photography
related work
Related work
  • not like synthetic aperture radar (SAR)
  • more like X-ray tomosynthesis
  • [Levoy and Hanrahan, 1996]
  • [Isaksen, McMillan, Gortler, 2000]
synthetic aperture photography using an array of mirrors
Synthetic aperture photographyusing an array of mirrors
  • 11-megapixel camera
  • 22 planar mirrors

?

synthetic aperture illumation20
Synthetic aperture illumation
  • technologies
    • array of projectors
    • array of microprojectors
    • single projector + array of mirrors
  • applications
    • bright display
    • autostereoscopic display [Matusik 2004]
    • confocal imaging [this paper]
confocal scanning microscopy22

r

light source

pinhole

pinhole

photocell

Confocal scanning microscopy
confocal scanning microscopy23
Confocal scanning microscopy

light source

pinhole

pinhole

photocell

confocal scanning microscopy24
Confocal scanning microscopy

light source

pinhole

pinhole

photocell

synthetic confocal scanning

→ 5 beams

→ 0 or 1 beam

Synthetic confocal scanning

light source

synthetic confocal scanning27

→ 5 beams

→ 0 or 1 beam

Synthetic confocal scanning

light source

synthetic confocal scanning28

d.o.f.

→ 5 beams

→ 0 or 1 beam

Synthetic confocal scanning
  • works with any number of projectors ≥ 2
  • discrimination degrades if point to left of
  • no discrimination for points to left of
  • slow!
  • poor light efficiency
synthetic coded aperture confocal imaging
Synthetic coded-apertureconfocal imaging
  • different from coded aperture imaging in astronomy
  • [Wilson, Confocal Microscopy by Aperture Correlation, 1996]
synthetic coded aperture confocal imaging33
Synthetic coded-apertureconfocal imaging

100 trials

→ 2 beams × ~50/100 trials ≈ 1

→ ~1 beam × ~50/100 trials ≈ 0.5

synthetic coded aperture confocal imaging34
Synthetic coded-apertureconfocal imaging

100 trials

→ 2 beams × ~50/100 trials ≈ 1

→ ~1 beam × ~50/100 trials ≈ 0.5

floodlit

→ 2 beams

→ 2 beams

trials – ¼ × floodlit

→ 1 – ¼ ( 2 ) ≈ 0.5

→ 0.5 – ¼ ( 2 ) ≈ 0

synthetic coded aperture confocal imaging35
Synthetic coded-apertureconfocal imaging

100 trials

→ 2 beams × ~50/100 trials ≈ 1

→ ~1 beam × ~50/100 trials ≈ 0.5

floodlit

→ 2 beams

→ 2 beams

trials – ¼ × floodlit

→ 1 – ¼ ( 2 ) ≈ 0.5

→ 0.5 – ¼ ( 2 ) ≈ 0

  • 50% light efficiency
  • any number of projectors ≥ 2
  • no discrimination to left of
  • works with relatively few trials (~16)
synthetic coded aperture confocal imaging36
Synthetic coded-apertureconfocal imaging

100 trials

→ 2 beams × ~50/100 trials ≈ 1

→ ~1 beam × ~50/100 trials ≈ 0.5

floodlit

→ 2 beams

→ 2 beams

trials – ¼ × floodlit

→ 1 – ¼ ( 2 ) ≈ 0.5

→ 0.5 – ¼ ( 2 ) ≈ 0

  • 50% light efficiency
  • any number of projectors ≥ 2
  • no discrimination to left of
  • works with relatively few trials (~16)
  • needs patterns in which illumination of tiles are uncorrelated
confocal imaging in scattering media
Confocal imaging in scattering media
  • small tank
    • too short for attenuation
    • lit by internal reflections
experiments in a large water tank
Experiments in a large water tank

50-foot flume at Wood’s Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI)

experiments in a large water tank43
Experiments in a large water tank
  • 4-foot viewing distance to target
  • surfaces blackened to kill reflections
  • titanium dioxide in filtered water
  • transmissometer to measure turbidity
experiments in a large water tank44
Experiments in a large water tank
  • stray light limits performance
  • one projector suffices if no occluders
seeing through turbid water
Seeing through turbid water

floodlit

scanned tile

research challenges in sap and sai
Research challenges in SAP and SAI
  • theory
    • aperture shapes and sampling patterns
    • illumination patterns for confocal imaging
  • optical design
    • How to arrange cameras, projectors,lenses, mirrors, and other optical elements?
    • How to compare the performance of different arrangements (in foliage, underwater,...)?
challenges continued
Challenges (continued)
  • systems design
    • multi-camera or multi-projector chips
    • communication in camera-projector networks
    • calibration in long-range or mobile settings
  • algorithms
    • tracking and stabilization of moving objects
    • compression of dense multi-view imagery
    • shape from light fields
challenges continued49
Challenges (continued)
  • applications of confocal imaging
    • remote sensing and surveillance
    • shape measurement
    • scientific imaging
  • applications of shaped illumination
    • shaped searchlights for surveillance
    • shaped headlamps for driving in bad weather
    • selective lighting of characters for stage and screen
computational imaging in other fields
Computational imagingin other fields
  • medical imaging
    • rebinning
    • tomography
  • airborne sensing
    • multi-perspective panoramas
    • synthetic aperture radar
  • astronomy
    • coded-aperture imaging
    • multi-telescope imaging
computational imaging in other fields51
Computational imagingin other fields
  • geophysics
    • accoustic array imaging
    • borehole tomography
  • biology
    • confocal microscopy
    • deconvolution microscopy
  • physics
    • optical tomography
    • inverse scattering
the team
staff

Mark Horowitz

Marc Levoy

Bennett Wilburn

students

Billy Chen

Vaibhav Vaish

Katherine Chou

Monica Goyal

Neel Joshi

Hsiao-Heng Kelin Lee

Georg Petschnigg

Guillaume Poncin

Michael Smulski

Augusto Roman

collaborators

Mark Bolas

Ian McDowall

Guillermo Sapiro

funding

Intel

Sony

Interval Research

NSF

DARPA

The team
related papers
Related papers
  • The Light Field Video Camera

Bennett Wilburn, Michael Smulski, Hsiao-Heng Kelin Lee, and Mark Horowitz

Proc. Media Processors 2002, SPIE Electronic Imaging 2002

  • Using Plane + Parallax for Calibrating Dense Camera Arrays

Vaibhav Vaish, Bennett Wilburn, Neel Joshi,, Marc Levoy

Proc. CVPR 2004

  • High Speed Video Using a Dense Camera Array

Bennett Wilburn, Neel Joshi, Vaibhav Vaish, Marc Levoy, Mark Horowitz

Proc. CVPR 2004

  • Spatiotemporal Sampling and Interpolation for Dense Camera Arrays

Bennett Wilburn, Neel Joshi, Katherine Chou, Marc Levoy, Mark Horowitz

ACM Transactions on Graphics (conditionally accepted)

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