Mems based mass storage systems
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MEMS Based Mass Storage Systems. What is MEMS?. (M)icro(E)lectric(M)echanical(S)ystems Consist of mech µ(structures, sensors, actuators), electronics, integrated onto same chip Transducer = Sensor / Actuator Smart sensors Cheap Examples. Fender?.

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MEMS Based Mass Storage Systems

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Mems based mass storage systems

MEMS Based Mass Storage Systems


What is mems

What is MEMS?

  • (M)icro(E)lectric(M)echanical(S)ystems

  • Consist of mech µ(structures, sensors, actuators), electronics, integrated onto same chip

  • Transducer = Sensor / Actuator

  • Smart sensors

  • Cheap

  • Examples


Fender

Fender?

  • The world's smallest guitar is 10 micrometers long –

  • Made by Cornell University researchers from crystalline silicon


Example

Example


Why use mems

Why use MEMS?

Capacity @ Entry Cost

  • Cost

  • Examples

100 GB

HARD

DISK

MEMS

10 GB

1 GB

0.1 GB

DRAM

CACHE RAM

0.01 GB

$1

$100

$10

$1000

Entry Cost


Why use mems cont

Why use MEMS?(cont.)

  • Volume

  • Examples

Flash memory, 0.4 µm2 cell

100,000

10,000

3.5” Disk Drive

1000

Occupied

volume [cm3]

100

10

Chip-sized data storage

@ 10 GByte/cm2

1

0.1

0.1

1

10

100

1000

10,000

Storage Capacity [GByte]


Why use mems cont1

Why use MEMS?(cont.)

  • Lower data latency

  • Why not EEPROM?

$300 / GB

EEPROM (Flash)

DRAM

$100 / GB

Prediction

2008

$30 / GB

Cost $ / GB

$10 / GB

MEMS

Worst-Case

Access

Time

(Rotational

Latency)

$3 / GB

HARD DISK

$1 / GB

100µs

10ns

1µs

10ms


Storage device design

Storage Device Design

  • 2 proposed models

    • Cantilever

    • “Moving media”


Moving media

Read/Write

tips

Actuators

Magnetic

Media

“Moving Media”


Moving media1

Bits stored

underneath

each tip

“Moving Media”

Read/write

tips

Media

side view


Logistics

Logistics

  • Area = 1 cm2

  • 10,000 probe tips

  • Bit cell of 0.0025-0.0009 µm2

     4 – 11 GB

  • Advantages / disadvantages


Data layout

Data Layout

  • Cylinders

  • Tracks

  • Sectors

  • Logical block


Device performance

Device Performance

  • timeservice=time seek+latencyrotate+timetransfer

  • MEMS

    • timeservice=time seek +timetransfer

      time seek,acceleration, turnaround time, settling time


Physical characteristics

Physical Characteristics

  • Bit Size

  • Access Velocity

  • Sled acceleration

  • Spring stiffness

  • Number of sleds

  • Number of active tips

  • Error rates


Performance characteristics

Performance Characteristics

  • Seek time

  • Settle time

  • Turnaround time

  • Peak bandwidth

  • Capacity

  • Power

  • Reliability


Example1

Example

  • Fast read-modify-write

  • No rotational latency

    Atlas 10KMEMS

    Read 0.14 0.13

    Reposition 5.980.07

    Write 0.140.13

    Total 6.260.33


Seek time from center

Seek Time From Center


Sustained data rate

Sustained Data Rate

1.6 Mbits / sec * 1280 tips = 2048 Mbits / sec


Sustained data rate1

Sustained Data Rate


Failure management

Failure Management

  • MEMS devices will have internal failures

    • Tips will break during fabrication/assembly, use

    • Media can wear

      ECC can be both horizontal and vertical

      Could then use spares to regain original level of reliability


Performance models

Performance Models

  • Generation 1

  • Generation 2

  • Generation 3

  • Reference disk – Atlas 10k

  • Super disk


Random workload microbenchmark

Random Workload - Microbenchmark


Postmark

Postmark


Power utilization

Power Utilization

  • Lower operating power

    • 100 mW for sled positioning

    • 1 mW per active tip

    • For 1000 active tips, total power is 1.1 watt

    • 50 mW standby mode

  • Fast transition from standby – 0.5 ms


Future potential

Future Potential

  • Definite advantages

  • Portable applications

  • New low-cost entry point

  • Archival storage

  • Active storage devices

  • Throwaway devices


Problems

Problems?

  • Very little has been implemented

  • Power consumption?

  • Heat – kinetic energy?

  • Reliability?

  • Sturdiness?

  • Any other alternatives?


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • Potential to fill the RAM/Disk gap

  • Simulation results show

    • reductions in I/O stall times

    • overall performance improvement

      We’ll have to wait and see …


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