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MEMS Based Mass Storage Systems. What is MEMS?. (M)icro(E)lectric(M)echanical(S)ystems Consist of mech µ(structures, sensors, actuators), electronics, integrated onto same chip Transducer = Sensor / Actuator Smart sensors Cheap Examples. Fender?.

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Presentation Transcript
what is mems
What is MEMS?
  • (M)icro(E)lectric(M)echanical(S)ystems
  • Consist of mech µ(structures, sensors, actuators), electronics, integrated onto same chip
  • Transducer = Sensor / Actuator
  • Smart sensors
  • Cheap
  • Examples
fender
Fender?
  • The world\'s smallest guitar is 10 micrometers long –
  • Made by Cornell University researchers from crystalline silicon
why use mems
Why use MEMS?

Capacity @ Entry Cost

  • Cost
  • Examples

100 GB

HARD

DISK

MEMS

10 GB

1 GB

0.1 GB

DRAM

CACHE RAM

0.01 GB

$1

$100

$10

$1000

Entry Cost

why use mems cont
Why use MEMS?(cont.)
  • Volume
  • Examples

Flash memory, 0.4 µm2 cell

100,000

10,000

3.5” Disk Drive

1000

Occupied

volume [cm3]

100

10

Chip-sized data storage

@ 10 GByte/cm2

1

0.1

0.1

1

10

100

1000

10,000

Storage Capacity [GByte]

why use mems cont1
Why use MEMS?(cont.)
  • Lower data latency
  • Why not EEPROM?

$300 / GB

EEPROM (Flash)

DRAM

$100 / GB

Prediction

2008

$30 / GB

Cost $ / GB

$10 / GB

MEMS

Worst-Case

Access

Time

(Rotational

Latency)

$3 / GB

HARD DISK

$1 / GB

100µs

10ns

1µs

10ms

storage device design
Storage Device Design
  • 2 proposed models
    • Cantilever
    • “Moving media”
moving media

Read/Write

tips

Actuators

Magnetic

Media

“Moving Media”
moving media1

Bits stored

underneath

each tip

“Moving Media”

Read/write

tips

Media

side view

logistics
Logistics
  • Area = 1 cm2
  • 10,000 probe tips
  • Bit cell of 0.0025-0.0009 µm2

 4 – 11 GB

  • Advantages / disadvantages
data layout
Data Layout
  • Cylinders
  • Tracks
  • Sectors
  • Logical block
device performance
Device Performance
  • timeservice=time seek+latencyrotate+timetransfer
  • MEMS
    • timeservice=time seek +timetransfer

time seek,acceleration, turnaround time, settling time

physical characteristics
Physical Characteristics
  • Bit Size
  • Access Velocity
  • Sled acceleration
  • Spring stiffness
  • Number of sleds
  • Number of active tips
  • Error rates
performance characteristics
Performance Characteristics
  • Seek time
  • Settle time
  • Turnaround time
  • Peak bandwidth
  • Capacity
  • Power
  • Reliability
example1
Example
  • Fast read-modify-write
  • No rotational latency

Atlas 10K MEMS

Read 0.14 0.13

Reposition 5.98 0.07

Write 0.14 0.13

Total 6.26 0.33

sustained data rate
Sustained Data Rate

1.6 Mbits / sec * 1280 tips = 2048 Mbits / sec

failure management
Failure Management
  • MEMS devices will have internal failures
    • Tips will break during fabrication/assembly, use
    • Media can wear

ECC can be both horizontal and vertical

Could then use spares to regain original level of reliability

performance models
Performance Models
  • Generation 1
  • Generation 2
  • Generation 3
  • Reference disk – Atlas 10k
  • Super disk
power utilization
Power Utilization
  • Lower operating power
    • 100 mW for sled positioning
    • 1 mW per active tip
    • For 1000 active tips, total power is 1.1 watt
    • 50 mW standby mode
  • Fast transition from standby – 0.5 ms
future potential
Future Potential
  • Definite advantages
  • Portable applications
  • New low-cost entry point
  • Archival storage
  • Active storage devices
  • Throwaway devices
problems
Problems?
  • Very little has been implemented
  • Power consumption?
  • Heat – kinetic energy?
  • Reliability?
  • Sturdiness?
  • Any other alternatives?
conclusions
Conclusions
  • Potential to fill the RAM/Disk gap
  • Simulation results show
    • reductions in I/O stall times
    • overall performance improvement

We’ll have to wait and see …

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