Approaches to psychology
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APPROACHES TO PSYCHOLOGY PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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APPROACHES TO PSYCHOLOGY. NEUROBIOLOGICAL. Biological processes influence behaviors Genetic factors influence behaviors Brain chemistry, nervous system, and hormones Localization of Function – Phineas Gage. EVOLUTIONARY. Natural selection of traits promoted the survival of genes

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APPROACHES TO PSYCHOLOGY

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APPROACHES TO PSYCHOLOGY


NEUROBIOLOGICAL

  • Biological processes influence behaviors

  • Genetic factors influence behaviors

  • Brain chemistry, nervous system, and hormones

  • Localization of Function – Phineas Gage


EVOLUTIONARY

  • Natural selection of traits promoted the survival of genes

  • How has anger facilitated the survival of our ancestors’ genes?


PSYCHOANALTIC

  • Psychodynamic

  • Unconscious motives influence behavior

    • Sexual

    • Aggressive

  • Past experiences/Childhood influence behavior

  • Sigmund Freud – Defense Mechanisms

  • Carl Jung – Collective Unconscious


Carl Jung


BEHAVIORAL

  • Personal experiences and reinforcement guide development

  • Environmental influences

  • Observational learning

  • Punishments & Rewards

  • Stimulus & Response

  • Ivan Pavlov

  • John B. Watson

  • B.F. Skinner


Ivan Pavlov


Little Albert

Watson and Little Albert

Brave New World


COGNITIVE

  • Perceptions & Thoughts influence behavior

  • Mental Images

  • Information Processing

  • Thinking & Language

  • Memory Functioning

  • Stroop Test


Stroop Effect

Messing with your mind since 1935


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Questions?

  • Do we read words faster than we name colors?

  • Do you think children who haven’t learned to read yet would have an easier time with this test? What about older people? What about ESL or non-native English speakers?


Conclusions?

  • Reading is automatic… a skill we learn and becomes more and more ingrained in us as we get older.

  • Color naming is a control process, something we must use directed attention to accomplish.

  • Other conclusions?


HUMANISTIC

  • People are born good with the potential for excellence

  • People make free & conscious choices based on their experiences

  • Carl Rogers – Self v. Ideal Self

  • Abraham Maslow – Hierarchy of Needs (theory of motivation) = SELF-ACTUALIZATION

  • Victor Frankl


SOCIOCULTURAL

  • Ethnicity, Gender, Culture, Socioeconomic status create individual differences

  • Behavior influenced by rules and expectations of societal groups


Cultural practice example: Sleeping arrangements

  • Infants sleeping arrangements during the child’s first two years

  • Culture (n.): A system of shared beliefs, values, customs, behaviors, and artifacts, conscious and unconscious, transmitted across generations through learning.


JE: Perspectives in Psychology

  • Out of the 6 major perspectives of psychology, which one or combination do you personally support?

  • Justify your response with specific examples of behavior and explanations as to why you do NOT support other approaches.


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