Long island
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 24

Long Island PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 221 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Long Island. Long Island residents concerned about : DDT for control of gypsy moths and mosquitoes Other pesticides used on farmlands Groundwater contamination Air pollution (major roads, airports) Electromagnetic fields Chemical waste. Long Island. Breast Cancer Rates

Download Presentation

Long Island

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Long island

Long Island

Long Island residents concerned about:

  • DDT for control of gypsy moths and mosquitoes

  • Other pesticides used on farmlands

  • Groundwater contamination

  • Air pollution (major roads, airports)

  • Electromagnetic fields

  • Chemical waste


Long island1

Long Island

Breast Cancer Rates

(per 100,000 women, age-standardized to1970 U.S. population)

1997 1992-1996

SEERNassauSuffolk

Incidence109.5117.8113.6

Mortality 27.2 30.6 31.1

Source: http://www.health.state.ny.us/nysdoh/cancer/volume1.htm

SEER - Surveillance, Epidemiologu and End Results ~15% of US population


Long island breast cancer study project

Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project

NCI and NIEHS sponsored group of ten studies undertaken in response to federal legislation (Public Law 103-43)

  • The cornerstone project, LIBCSP, is a large population-based study of 3000 women


Libcsp

LIBCSP

Primary Aims

Determine whether breast cancer is associated with:

  • Organochlorine compounds (DDT/DDE, PCBs, chlordane, dieldrin) as measured in blood

  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-DNA adducts


Libcsp other aims

LIBCSP Other Aims

Whether breast cancer is associated with:

  • Lifestyle

    • alcohol, body size, recreational physical activity, occupational physical activity

  • Diet

    • PAH-related foods, alcohol, isoflavones, estrogen-metabolite related foods, folate, phytoestrogens, insulin-related foods, brassica veggies

  • Early life exposures

    • DES, preeclampsia

  • HRT and other factors among the elderly

  • Family History of Cancer

  • Medical History

    • NSAIDS


Libcsp1

LIBCSP

Additional Environmental Study Aims

  • Questionnaire-assessed exposures

    • self-reported pesticide use

    • environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)

    • home appliance exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF)

    • occupation

    • medical ionizing radiation

  • Historical exposures assessed by geographic modeling

    • long-term PAH exposure

      • Model validated against soil sample measures taken from the home

  • Exposure assessment based on home samples

    • in-home exposure to PAH and organochlorines in dust samples

    • chlorinated and carbamated pesticides, and metals in drinking water

  • Biologic samples

    • urinary estrogen metabolites

      • ratio of 16alpha-hydroxyestrone to 2-hydroestrone


Long island

Population-Based Breast CancerCases

Eligibility criteria

newly diagnosed 1996-1997

resident of Nassau or Suffolk county

no age restrictions

speaks English

Identification protocol

daily contact with 33 hospitals on LI and NYC

diagnosis confirmed by MD

N = 1508

82% completed interviews

Response varied by age:< 65yrs = 89%, 65yrs = 72%


Long island

Population-BasedControls

Eligibility criteria

resident of Nassau or Suffolk county

no personal history of breast cancer

speaks English

frequency-matched on age to expected distribution of cases

Identification protocol

Random digit dialing among women under age 65 years

Health Care Financing and Administration for >65 years

N = 1556

63% completed interviews

Response varied by age:< 65 yrs=76%, 65 yrs=43%


Libcsp case control study

Random sample of long-term (15 yr) residents:

Interview-home samples

CasesControls

Dust 84%83%

Water 94%94%

Soil 94%94%

LIBCSP Case-Control Study


Libcsp molecular epidemiology studies

LIBCSP Molecular Epidemiology Studies

Biologic Specimens Available:

  • Urine (n = 1400 cases and 1300 controls)

  • Blood (n = 1100 cases and 1100 controls)

  • DNA isolated from blood donations

    (n = 1100 cases and 1100 controls)

  • Archived tumor blocks (n = 975 cases)


Results of libcsp in relation to known risk factors

Results of LIBCSP in Relation to Known Risk Factors

Protective Beginning menstruating at an older age

Having children

Increases with number of children

Having a first child at a younger age

Breast feeding

Risk Factor Higher body mass index is a risk factor

Smoking and alcohol consumption are not significant

Breast Cancer Res Treat 74: 235, 2002


Environmental chemicals and risk for breast cancer in the libcsp

Environmental Chemicals and Risk for Breast Cancer in the LIBCSP

No relationship with blood levels of organochlorine compounds measured - DDE, DDT, PCBs, dieldrin, chlordane

High PAH-DNA damage in blood cells indicated small (50%) but statistically significant increase in risk-but no dose-response [Results duplicated in remaining samples]


Immunohistochemical detection of 4 abp dna in breast adjacent nontumor tissues

Immunohistochemical Detection of 4-ABP-DNA in Breast Adjacent Nontumor Tissues

4ABP-DNA higher in smokers compared to nonsmokers


4 abp dna log transformed staining intensity in tumor and normal adjacent tissue

4-ABP-DNA (log transformed staining intensity) in Tumor and Normal Adjacent Tissue

Active smokingAdjacent TissueTumor Tissue

Never5.770.60205.330.71 57

Past/former5.950.50255.430.83 65

Current6.200.43105.370.80 26p=0.04ap=0.68a

Passive smoking

Never5.520.83 55.640.71 15

Past/former5.970.50435.370.77108

Current6.030.49 65.280.86 23

p=0.14ap=0.19a

Active and passive smoking

Never either4.630.14 25.240.58 7

Ever passive only5.900.48185.340.73 50

Ever active only6.110.25 35.990.66 8

Ever both6.020.51315.360.82 81

p=0.03ap=0.84a

a p value for linear trend


Long island

Carcinogen metabolism Chemicals

Estrogen metabolism Radiation

DNA Repair Viruses

Genes Environment

Interindividual Variation

Cancer


Long island

Exon 23 Polymorphism in XPD and Breast Cancer Risk

GenotypeCasesControlsOR(95%CI)

N(%)N(%)

Lys/Lys (AA)3874531

Lys/Gln (AC)5134981.22(1.01-1.46)

Gln/Gln (CC)1531511.18(0.91-1.53)

Lys/Gln+Gln/Gln6666491.21(1.01-1.44)


Long island

Multivariate-adjusted ORs for Risk Factors Stratified by XPD Status

Genotype PAH-DNA

Nondetect<Median>Median

AA111

AC1.25(0.83-1.86)1.01(0.71-1.44)1.22(0.85-1.76)

CC0.91(0.52-1.62)1.05(0.64-1.74)1.61(0.99-2.63)


Long island

Multivariate-adjusted ORs for Risk Factors Stratified by XPD Status

Active Smoking

Never FormerCurrent

AA1 1 1

AC 0.89(0.67-1.19) 1.56(1.12-2.16) 1.25(0.80-1.97)

CC 0.87(0.57-1.32) 1.16(0.75-1.81) 1.97(1.02-3.81)


Myeloperoxidase genotype dietary antioxidants and breast cancer risk

Myeloperoxidase Genotype, Dietary Antioxidants and Breast Cancer Risk

G463A variant-in promoter region-G allele higher transcriptional activation

Among premenopausal women

GG1

GA 0.92(0.63-1.33)

AA 0.42(0.21-0.84)

GA+AA+high fruits/veg0.33(0.13-0.88)

Ahn, Ambrosone et al


Libcsp molecular epidemiology studies projects as of 10 03

LIBCSP Molecular Epidemiology Studies(projects as of 10/03)

Urinary Markers:

  • Estrogen metabolites, isoprostanes,isothiocyanates

    Blood Markers:

  • Exposure Markers

    • PAH-DNA adducts, oxidative DNA damage, organochlorine compounds, insulin (among controls)

  • Genetic Markers

    • polymorphisms in estrogen,folate and carcinogen metabolism,DNA repair, oxidative stress , estrogen receptor alpha and beta genes, IGF, cyclin D

      Tumor Markers:

  • Tissue - PAH-DNA, 4-ABP-DNA, p53 protein expression, p53 mutations, cyclin D1 and HER-2/neu overexpression

  • Blood - antibodies to p53, HER-2/neu protein


Libcsp follow up

LIBCSP Follow-Up

Breast Cancer Cases

  • Determine case vital status, change of address

  • Primary exposures of interest are measures:

    • assessed at baseline case-control study, and

    • during the follow-up interview

  • Re-interview case participants or proxy at 5-year follow-up

    • One-hour telephone interview to determine medical treatment for initial cancer, and changes in:

      • residence, occupation, use of pesticides and other contaminants, appliance use, alcohol use, passive and active smoking, body size, physical activity, medical hx, hormone use, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use

    • Self-administered FFQ

  • Collect medical records

  • Determine outcome status

    • NYS Tumor Registry, NDI, respondent, medical record


Libcsp companion projects

LIBCSP: Companion Projects

  • Geographic Information System (GIS)

    • National Cancer Institute

      • Mapped layers of historical exposure data from multiple sources (EPA)

      • -Mapped cancer data from NYS Tumor registry, conserving patient privacy

    • Use as an estimate of historical exposures, particularly for compounds for which biomarkers are not currently feasible

    • May be useful for exploratory or hypothesis-generating analyses

    • Access on line

      • lay public vs. scientific researchers


Libcsp companion projects1

LIBCSP: Companion Projects

  • Electromagnetic Fields (EMF)

    • SUNY at Stony Brook (PI: C Leske)

      • Recontacted long-term residents of case-control interview

        • More detailed interview on occupational and residential EMF exposures

        • In-home spot and 24-hour measures with EMDEX meter

        • Wire Coding

    • May affect production of melatonin

      • inversely related to biologically available endogenous estrogen levels


Libcsp2

LIBCSP

Collaborators

UNC:MD Gammon (PI), P Abrahamson, R Cleveland, S White, K McCullough, M Gaudet, K Conway, R Millikan,S Steck-Scott

Columbia:RM Santella, AI Neugut, S Stellman, MB Terry, R Senie, B Levin, J Jacobson, H Hibshoosh

Mt. Sinai: MS Wolf, M Hatch, SL Teitelbaum, JA Britton, J Chen, C Ambrosone

Stonybrook: G Kabat, E O’Leary

NIH:Obrams (NCI), G Coleman (NIEHS), E Heineman (NCI)

Westat:C Maffeo, P Montalvan


  • Login