Things you might not want to talk about when talking about relational violence

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Please shut off all electronic devices. The Greek way Introduce yourself to the people around youFind out about the people around youPay attention to the people around you. Theories about youth. 1920s-30s: eugenics movement, juvenile justice system emerges , adolescence"1940s-60s: devianceJuve

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Things you might not want to talk about when talking about relational violence

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1. Things you might not want to talk about when talking about relational violence Peter Wollheim, C.C.W., Ph.D. Department of Communication Boise State University

2. Please shut off all electronic devices The Greek way Introduce yourself to the people around you Find out about the people around you Pay attention to the people around you

3. Theories about youth 1920s-30s: eugenics movement, juvenile justice system emerges , “adolescence” 1940s-60s: deviance Juvenile delinquency – criminal theories Social maladjustment theories – clinical approaches Accusations of moral decadence - McCarthyism 1960s-present counter-culture – youth rebellion and social movements Media influence theories (comic books, tv)

4. Non-deviance theories Erik Erikson’s stages of “identity crisis” Subculture theory: Mods, Rockers, Hippies, Punks, Post-punks as political movements V. Satir and family systems therapy Great Society educational reform movements Alfred Adler – “All behavior is deliberate;” “People are not disturbed but rather discouraged” Client-centered Play therapy theory (Landreth) “Parenting with Love and Logic” Identification of “at-risk” youth

5. Teenagers as consumers Post-WWII AM radio – favorite programs 45s and the emergence of rock 1960s – TV migrates teenagers to the movies (rating codes) 1970s-80s – lifestyle demographics/ psychographics – “coolness” Cable, satellite, 24hr broadcast day – all programming becomes children’s programming 1990s – electronic media and fragmentation of the mass media audience

6. Public health model for relational violence (CDC) Identify the pathogens (causative factors) Separate the population from the pathogens (i.e., anti-meth campaigns) Build resilience in the population (youth activities, education)

7. Introduction Intimate Partner/Domestic Partner Violence (IP/DPV) is a significant problem in the United States and here in Idaho. Typically treated on a case-by-case basis by law enforcement, the courts and mental health professionals, current research shows that it is a complicated problem involving one or more biological, psychological, social and cultural factors. While researchers can identify both risk and protective factors, the issue remains a highly stigmatized and political one since addressing IP/DPV is often met with concerns about individual and family rights of privacy, family self-governance and rule making, and acceptable cultural and even religious norms.

8. A public health philosophy Behind the statistics and research cited below lies the personal pain, sense of hopelessness and lost futures, heartache and suffering experienced by adults, children, families, neighborhoods, school, places of work and business, and entire communities. This model proceeds from the philosophical perspective that IP/DPV is simultaneously a private and public concern, that it lies on the critical intersection between those two spheres of social life, and that it constitutes a public health as much as an individual health problem.

9. Compelling public interests Idaho law and jurisprudence have long followed centuries long-held beliefs that the public does have an important vested interest in the functioning of individuals, couples, spouses and families. As a society, we accept the state’s active involvement as an honest broker, mediator, protector, enforcer and resource of last resort in areas such as marriage contracts and divorce decrees, intergenerational transfer of property through wills and probate, regulation of alcohol and other substances, establishment of child education and protection facilities, and criminalization of behaviors associated with prejudice, and sexual and domestic violence.

10. Additional interests An ordered and humane society recognizes the need to protect its most vulnerable members. An intelligent and progressive society also recognizes that prevention is preferable to intervention, that education remains better than incarceration, and that it is efficient, efficacious, and in keeping with democratic ideals to involve all community members in taking full responsibility for recognizing and addressing matters of common concern.

11. Defining the problem Addressing IP/DPV is often hampered by inconsistencies and confusions in terminology, specifically among various definitions used and accepted by law enforcement and the courts, mental health professionals, community activists and the lay public. The area of relational problems is given noticeably short shrift by the American Psychiatric Associations’ Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR). The current version, published in 2000, devotes almost two pages to premature ejaculation (code 302.75), yet only slightly more than one page to “Problems Related to Abuse or Neglect” (pp.738-739).

12. A working definition Definition offered by the Family Violence Prevention Fund: a pattern of assaultive and coercive behaviors that may include inflicted physical injury, psychological abuse, sexual assault, progressive social isolation, stalking, deprivation, intimidation and threats. These behaviors are perpetrated by someone who is, was, or wishes to be involved in an intimate or dating relationship with an adult or adolescent, and are aimed at establishing control by one partner over the other.

13. Statistics and impact statement Idahoans are less likely to die to heart disease, cancer and cerebrovascular disease combined, than to be involved in an IP/DPV situation. They are also far less likely to face the other leading causes of injury and death in this state which include respiratory disease, motor vehicle or other accidents, diabetes, Alzheimer’s, influenza and pneumonia, suicide and chronic liver disease and cirrhosis. Even with 9810 motor vehicle collisions in 2005, with 14,436 injuries, these numbers fall below the total for IP/DPV incidents that are severe enough to draw the attention of law enforcement agencies It is therefore reasonable to conclude that IP/DPV is the leading public health issue facing Idahoans today.

14. Co-morbidity, Part 1 Direct health problems. “Women who have been victimized by an intimate partner and children raised in violent households are more likely to experience a wide array of physical and mental health conditions including frequent headaches, gastrointestinal problems, depression, anxiety, sleep problems and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)” Homelessness. Several authorities claim that domestic violence “is a major cause of homelessness in this country.” Although Idaho statistics are difficult to obtain, nationwide surveys suggest that IP/DPV may be attributed to 25% to 50% of homelessness among women, and perhaps 61% of homelessness in girls and 19% in boys. ,

15. Co-morbibity, Part 2 Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorder. Studies indicate that 100% of women who give birth to a child with FASD have been victims of sexual or physical violence. Children who suffer from FASD have demonstrably higher risks for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder; alcohol or other drug dependency; depression; or psychotic episodes. Other associated psychiatric problems include anxiety disorders, depression and eating disorders.” These also children evidence disrupted school experience leading up to separation from the educational system, arrest and incarceration, inappropriate and illegal sexual behavior, increase risk for substance abuse inpatient treatment, unemployment, homelessness, acquiring and spreading sexually transmitted diseases, difficulty in parenting, and perpetuating the cycle of FASD onto subsequent generations.

16. Co-morbidity, part 3 Children exposed to family violence are prone to bed-wetting, nightmares and other signs of PTSD, and at markedly higher risk for allergies, asthma, gastrointestinal problems, headaches and flu. They are also at greater risk for serious adult health problems such as tobacco use, substance abuse, obesity, cancer, heart disease, depression and unintended pregnancy. Long-term, females exposed to their parents’ domestic violence as adolescents are significantly more likely to become victims of dating violence than daughters of nonviolent parents. Physical abuse during childhood increases the risk of future victimization among women and the risk of future perpetration of abuse by men more than two-fold.

17. On a personal note “Intimate partner violence causes far more pain than the visible marks of bruises and scars. It is devastating to be abused by someone that you love and thinks loves you in return" (Anonymous).

18. The ecology of violence and harm Biological risk factors Psychological risk factors Social risk factors Cultural risk factors

19. Biological risk factors Genetics – monamine oxidase-a genes (“X” genes) produce excess serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline. Associated with aggression, impulsiveness, hostility Genetic predispositions to mental disorders such as depression, bipolar illness, schizophrenia, alcohol abuse (?)

20. Prenatal issues Abortion vs. miscarriage Maternal malnutrition Exposure to toxic substances: mutagens, teratogens, abortifacts Heavy metals Alcohol, tobacco Endocrine disruptors

21. Obstetrical/neonatal issues Induction vs. forceps C-sections, epidurals Neonate/parental bonding Breast feeding Parental tolerance for infantile frustration, illness, crying

22. Biological development Sleep Nutrition Exercise Physical contact Lead, arsenic and other environmental toxins (strollers, SUVs and asthma)

23. Puberty Earlier onset in American females Re-structuring of infantile brain Shedding of neural sheathing Poor connectivity between frontal cortex and limbic system/midbrain Erratic hormonal flooding Higher susceptibility to substance abuse and addiction

24. Physical injuries, impairments and disorders Epilepsy Hearing disorders Ambulatory disorders Cognitive delays and challenges Dermatological disorders Mild brain trauma (mBTI) from motor vehicle accidents, concussive sports

25. Substance use, abuse, addiction High fructose corn sugars + obesity, diabetes Caffeine and sleep cycles Tobacco Adult modeling of alcohol consumption – use, abuse, dependency, addiction Ready access to alcohol Adolescent adaptability to substances

26. Substances Marijuana now associated with 67% of all suicide attempts Limited detox resources: 28 days Re-exposure to substances after detox – within 20 minutes of return to school Adult hypocrisy/denial re availability and use of substances

27. Psychological risk factors Abandonment (attachment disorders) Parental mental illness/substance abuse Witnessing or victimization from IP/DPV Family instability (divorce, financial stress, moving, death, suicide) Introduction of a non-parental adult male Early initiation into sexual activity (<19) Illegitimacy Trauma

28. Psychological risks Low self-esteem High anxiety Low self-efficacy High impulsiveness Body image distortions

29. Depression Maternal depression as causative and predictive of childhood depression, especially for sons Causative for obesity In 60%+ of adolescent males depression manifests as irritation, frustration, anger, rage and fighting

30. Adolescent cognition Globalization Polarization (perfectionism) Personalization (narcissism) Projection Introjection Magical thinking

31. Social risk factors Poverty Oppression Racism Sexism Homophobia Religious discrimination Population density Lack of access to resources (shelters, clinics, pharmacies, hotlines) Presence of a firearm in the home

32. School as a risk factor Differential developmental schedules, males and females Differences in physical size, bulk and strength from lower to higher grades Competiveness in social hierarchies status, power, wealth, physical attractiveness Access to drugs, harassment, bullying, pressures around sex

33. Work as a risk factor More adolescents killed, maimed or injured working than any other place in American society Example: fast-food service: Lack of adult supervision Hot liquids, heavy objects, sharp metals, slippery floors Prominent armed robbery targets

34. Media influences Short-term vs. long-term Arousal vs. desensitization Arguments about content “Mean world” hypothesis Television itself is inherently violence-inducing (M. Winn, 2002) All programming is children’s programming

35. Children as sex objects Films: American Beauty, Little Miss Sunshine, The Reader Clothing styles “Hot Tots” and “Prostitots”; high heels for little girls Legible kids’ clothing: “Eye Candy”, “So many boys, So little time”, “Who needs credit cards?”, “Mr. Pimp”, “Mr. Well-Hung”, Salon “Princess Makeovers” Bratz, Tatoo Barbie, Pregnant Barbie Body-image distortions in 5-year olds Initiation into prostitution and other sex work

36. Teenagers as a ‘liminal population’ Legally neither children nor adults “The best things in life don’t happen until you hit 21” Alcohol Tobacco Driving Sex Financial independence Severe social sanctions for trying to access adult privileges

37. Cultural risk factors Glorifications of violence per se “hunting” vs. “killing” Ideals of hypermasculinity and hyperfeminity Racism, sexism, religious intolerance, homophobia Negative stereotypes re mental illness Inappropriate forgiveness of abuse

38. Recommendations: biological risk factors Genetic counseling Better prenatal care Support for midwifery, birthing rooms Higher standards for air, drinking water, building materials More support for breast feeding Greater restrictions on substance accessibility More research, support for those with physical/mental challenges

39. Recommendations: psychological risk factors More support for family life More parental education on mental health and substance abuse issues More mental health professionals specializing in children’s emotional issues More screening for mental health issues Greater access to physical and mental health services

40. Parenting styles High engagement, high permissiveness (boundary issues) High engagement, low permissiveness (dependent personality issues) Low engagement, high permissiveness (parental indifference) Low engagement, low permissiveness (getting into trouble elicits attention)

41. Parenting strategies Unconditional positive regard Respect Compassion Guilt = feeling bad for what you’ve done Shame = feeling bad for who you are Yelling, threats = inducing fear Why ask “why?”

42. Parenting techniques Parenting With Love and Logic = proportionate discipline (not “punishment” or humiliation) Sanctions must be: Immediate Consequential Proportionate to the offense

43. Landreth’s ACTs Acknowledge the child’s feelings, wishes, wants Communicate the limit Target acceptable alternatives “I know you want to use your Blackberry” “But right now is for participating in a talk” “You can use your Blackberry after this session is over” “If you chose to…you chose to…”

44. Recommendations: social risk factors More vigilant attitudes towards firearms Stricter licensing and inspection for day care facilities and workers Better addressing of structural social inequalities Better urban planning around density issues Zoning codes that encourage porches

45. More social recommedations Raise the minimum drinking age to 24 Raise the minimum driving age to 24 Discourage early marriages Provide more shelters and hotlines Mandatory universal youth service Better training and supervision for teenagers in the workplace

46. Recommendations Better, universal prenatal care and support More support for families and family life Paternity leave Support for family farms, ranches, businesses Parent education classes “Blow up your TV” Change cultural attitudes towards homosexuality Stop ‘stove-piping’ social services Encourage teenagers to engage in volunteer work/community service Talk to teenagers honestly about drugs Change the culture of alcohol consumption

47. More recommendations Segregate schools by gender Segregate schools by age cohorts More rewards for nonathletic accomplishment (including manual intelligence) Better sex education

48. Sex Ed

49. More “wish list” No private, isolated use of tv or computers No texting for adolescent cell phones Parental access to and surveillance of all social networking sites Raise the social status and pay of teachers Mandatory universal service after high school graduation Discourage gang recruitment

50. Recommendations: schools Support for after-school activities Let counselors practice as counselors Dress codes for students and teachers Non-caffeine school lunches, machines, zoning regulations Zero tolerance policies for relational violence

51. Recommendations: communities Larger birthing and hospice beds Longer detox programs After-school activities Support for anti-gang law enforcement Zoning codes that favor porches One-stop social service model Mental health licensing requirements for teachers, police officers, counselors, psychologists, psychiatrists and day care workers

52. Recommendations: cultural changes Redefining competitiveness: Best of all vs. personal best Restoring the dignity of fatherhood Raise the non-sexual social status of young women Minimize the commercial and sexual exploitation of adolescents

53. Rethinking core beliefs Original Sin/Original Innocence Perfectionism/Contentment Individual Good/Collective Good Redefine adolescence in terms of vital growth processes rather than deviance or pathology

54. Caution: the Craig’s list experiment Ad #1: “Educated gentleman seeks woman for companionship, friendship, fine dining, museum visits and concert-going.” Ad #2: “Real Bad Boy seeks woman to tame him.”

55. Conclusion In the final analysis, it’s up to each individual to assert themselves, create and maintain boundaries, and think about who you invite into your life and why.

56. Data sources Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Injury Prevention Center Idaho Department of Education Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, Bureau of Health Policy and Vital Statistics Idaho Kids Count Idaho State Police annual reports Institute of Medicine of the National Academies Office of the Surgeon-General of the United States, “National Strategy for Suicide Prevention: Goals and Objectives for Action.” Suicide Prevention Research Center Suicide Prevention Action Network

57. Good reading Cline, F. & Fay, J. (2006). Parenting with love and logic. NavPress. Erikson, E. (1960). Childhood and society. N.Y.C.: Norton. Hebdige, D. (1981). Subculture: The meaning of style. London UK: New Accents. Jacobs, J. (1992). The life and death of great American cities. NYC: Vintage. Landreth, G.L. (2005). Play therapy: The art of the relationship, 2nd edition, N.Y.C.: Brunner-Routledge Satir, V. (1988). The new peoplemaking. Palo Alto, CA: Science and Behavior Books. Walsh, T. (1991). Intellectual imbalance, love deprivation and violent delinquency:  A biosocial perspective. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas. Winn, M. (2002). The plug-in drug. NYC: Penguin.

58. Hotlines Suicide prevention: 1-800-564-2120 National Violence Prevention Hotline: 1-800-799-7233 Boise WCA (208) 343-7025 911

59. Comments, questions, concerns? Peter Wollheim, C.C.W., Ph.D. Department of Communication Boise State University 1910 University Drive Boise ID 83725 [email protected] 208 426-3532

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