Doctoral project of g lseli baysu supervisors karen phalet marc swyngedouw
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Staying on or dropping out: Role of school segregation and intergroup friendships in school success of Turkish-second-generation. Doctoral project of Gülseli Baysu Supervisors: Karen Phalet & Marc Swyngedouw CSCP & ISPO K. U. Leuven. The Turkish second-generation.

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Doctoral project of Gülseli Baysu Supervisors: Karen Phalet & Marc Swyngedouw

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Doctoral project of g lseli baysu supervisors karen phalet marc swyngedouw

Staying on or dropping out:Role of school segregation and intergroup friendships in school success of Turkish-second-generation

Doctoral project of Gülseli Baysu

Supervisors: Karen Phalet & Marc Swyngedouw

CSCP & ISPO K. U. Leuven


The turkish second generation

The Turkish second-generation

Born in the country where their parents migrated to

Whose both or one parents are born in Turkey

18 to 35

Mainly Belgium, but also Austria and Sweden


The comparison group

The comparison group:

  • Whose parents are born in the survey country

  • 18-35 years old

  • Living in the same neighborhood with the Turkish-second generation


School success

School success

  • Drop-out rates

  • Track placement in Secondary School

    • Vocational

    • Academic /Technical (preparation for higher education)

  • Continuation into higher education


  • Factors affecting school success

    Factors affecting school success

    • School segregation

      Perceived percent immigrant in primary school and secondary school

    • Intergroup Friends

      Percentage of friends with the comparison group


    Research questions

    Research questions:

    • Are there differences in the careers of Turkish-second-generation and the comparison group?

    • What factors are affecting school success?

    • Are segregation effects comparative/comparable?


    Are there differences in the school success of turkish second generation and the comparison group

    Are there differences in the school success of Turkish-second-generation and the comparison group?

    Antwerp, Belgium


    Doctoral project of g lseli baysu supervisors karen phalet marc swyngedouw

    • The leaking pipeline:

      • The way in which the presence of Turkish-second generation in academic tracks and in school diminishes through school career


    Doctoral project of g lseli baysu supervisors karen phalet marc swyngedouw

    DROP-OUT

    LEAVING

    ACADEMIC/TECHNICAL

    HIGHER EDUCATION

    34

    57

    29

    31

    UPPER SECONDARY

    2 YEARS

    MIDDLE SECONDARY

    2 YEARS

    45

    10

    LOWER SECONDARY

    2 YEARS

    68

    100


    Doctoral project of g lseli baysu supervisors karen phalet marc swyngedouw

    DROP-OUT

    LEAVING

    ACADEMIC/TECHNICAL

    HIGHER EDUCATION

    67

    57

    30

    34

    29

    31

    UPPER SECONDARY

    66

    11

    45

    76

    10

    MIDDLE SECONDARY

    4

    LOWER SECONDARY

    68

    84

    BLACK: TURKISH-SECOND GENERATION

    RED: COMPARISON GROUP


    Leaking pipeline

    Leaking pipeline:

    • Does the difference between the Turkish second-generation and comparison group disappear if we control for demographic characteristics?

      • i.e. If they had similar personal histories: similar father’s education, starting in the academic track, no repeating grade in the primary school


    Net gap

    Chances of being in vocational vs. academic track at three stages in the course of secondary school

    Net Gap


    Result 1

    Result 1

    • There is an increasing difference between the Turkish-second generation and the comparison group in school success

    • This difference cannot be explained by parental background, even with their academic history of success/failure


    Doctoral project of g lseli baysu supervisors karen phalet marc swyngedouw

    What factors are affecting school success?

    (Antwerp, Belgium)


    Segregation

    Segregation

    School segregation refers to the over-representation of disadvantaged minority students in the same schools, which are often ‘majority minority’ schools.


    Why is segregation harmful

    Why is segregation harmful?

    • a lower quality of instruction and/or to a relative lack of resources (Massey & Fischer, 2006)

    • coupled with socio-economic segregation, students from low-income families (Carhill, Suárez-Orozco, & Páez, 2008).


    Segregation and intergroup friendships

    Segregation and intergroup friendships

    • Intergroup friendships: Contact with the majority culture

      - Positive attitudes between Turkish-second-generation and the comparison group (majority society)

      - Language learning


    Doctoral project of g lseli baysu supervisors karen phalet marc swyngedouw

    Segregation and intergroup friendships in Antwerp

    Segregation scale: 1=none; 2=25%; 3=50%; 4=75%; 5=all


    Results segregation in primary and secondary school

    Results: Segregation in primary and secondary school

    Segregation both in primary and secondary school (high % of immigrants)

    • increased the likelihood of being in vocational track

    • leaving school (4-6 times)

    • harmful for both Turkish-second-generation and the comparison group.


    Results intergroup friendships in secondary school

    Results: Intergroup friendships in secondary school

    • students who had most friends of Belgian origin in secondary school are

      • twice more likely to stay on (rather than drop out)

      • twice more likely to be in the academic track

      • five times more likely to continue higher education


    Overall result

    Overall result:

    • Segregation is harmful for both the Turkish second-generation and the comparison group

    • Intergroup friendships protect the Turkish second-generation against drop-out and increases their chances of being in the academic track.


    Segregation in three countries belgium austria and sweden

    Segregation in three countries (Belgium, Austria and Sweden)


    Doctoral project of g lseli baysu supervisors karen phalet marc swyngedouw

    Segregation levels in primary schools

    1=none; 2=25%; 3=50%; 4=75%; 5=all


    Doctoral project of g lseli baysu supervisors karen phalet marc swyngedouw

    Segregation levels in secondary schools

    1=none; 2=25%; 3=50%; 4=75%; 5=all


    Doctoral project of g lseli baysu supervisors karen phalet marc swyngedouw

    Strength of association (correlation) between primary and secondary school segregation


    Doctoral project of g lseli baysu supervisors karen phalet marc swyngedouw

    Educational Levels


    Is segregation harmful for school success

    Is segregation harmful for school success?

    • In Austria, Sweden and Belgium (5 cities) segregation has a negative effect on school success

    • IMPORTANT: CONTROLLED FOR TRACK AT ENTRY INTO SECONDARY


    Take home message

    Take-home message

    • There is an enlarging difference in the school success of Turkish-second generation and the comparion group (Antwerp)

    • Segregation is harmful for school success of both Turkish-second generation and the comparison group! (Antwerp)

    • Intergroup friendships protect the Turkish second generation against drop-out and increase their chances of academic track! (Antwerp)


    Take home message1

    Take-home message

    • In spite of different levels of segregation in different cities, segregation is consistenly destructive for school careers of Turkish second-generation across local and national contexts!

      (Linz, Vienna, Stockholm, Antwerp, Brussel)


    Doctoral project of g lseli baysu supervisors karen phalet marc swyngedouw

    THANK YOU


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