Rebuilding the Nation. 16.1. Warm up. What were the postwar challenges that faced the nation after the Civil War?. Answer. -physical destruction -wounded/killed soldiers -financial ruin -freedmen. One of the last photographs of Lincoln, likely taken between February and April 1865.
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Rebuilding the Nation
What were the postwar challenges that faced the nation after the Civil War?
One of the last photographs of Lincoln, likely taken between February and April 1865
Lincoln aged substantially during his time as president!
"With malice toward none, with charity for all" Lincoln
□ Amnesty – forgiveness to the Southern people
□ 10% Pledge – pledge loyalty to the U.S. – form new govt. (except CSA leaders)
□ Whites must agree blacks are free in the south
However, Lincoln would not force Southerners to give white and black Americans the same rights.
RADICAL REPUBLICAN’S PLAN: The Wade-Davis Bill
Many Republicans in Congress believed that Lincoln’s plan was too “soft”.
They created their own plan led by Thaddeus Stevens.
RADICAL REPUBLICAN’S PLAN
WADE – DAVIS BILL
(Much tougher than Lincoln’s plan)
Freedmen’s Bureau- Helped African American’s transition to freedom.
Five Days after the surrender at Appomattox, Abraham Lincoln was assassinated at Ford’s Theatre in Washington, D.C. (April 14, 1865)
April 14, 1865
Ford’s Theatre shortly after the assassination of Lincoln.
Lincoln attended the play “Our American Cousin”
John Wilkes Booth shot Lincoln while he watched the play (in the balcony)
Booth yelled “Sic Simper Tyrannous” or “The South is avenged” depending on who was asked.
Lincoln was carried across the street to William Petersen’s boarding house. Several doctors who had been in the audience rushed to the president's side. The bullet had entered behind his left ear and was lodged behind his right eye. The situation appeared grim. Lincoln died at 7:22 am on April 15, 1865.
The attack on the president wasn’t the only attack that night. Booth’s plan also included attacks by two other accomplices. George Atzerodt to kill VP Johnson and Lewis Paine to kill Sec. of State Seward.
John Wilkes Booth,
an actor and Southern sympathizer was the mastermind behind the assassination plan.
Four people were
for life for
Two weeks after the assassination, Booth was chased to a farmhouse where he was shot by federal police on April 26, 1865. His final words were “Useless, Useless.”
Four presidents have been
killed in office:
James A. Garfield
John F. Kennedy
Lincoln’s body was put on display at 12 different
funerals from D.C. to Springfield. Thousands paid their respects to the fallen leader.
The New York Procession took four hours. People scalped tickets for four dollars and up. A young Teddy Roosevelt would watch from window along the route.
The impact the assassination had on our nation was:
-It left us without a leader to direct the plans for the Reconstruction
- It opened a bigger wound in the healing process between the North and the South
Describe Lincoln’s assassination.
Lincoln was shot on April 14, 1865 at Ford’s Theatre by John Wilkes Booth. He was then carried across the street to William Petersen’s boarding house. He died at 7:22 am on April 15, 1865.
The Battle Over Reconstruction
- Andrew Johnson’s Plan
- Andrew Johnson’s Plan
-Appointed governors to southern states to hold elections for state constitutional conventions. (Only loyal could vote)
-He did NOT want to grant freed African Americans equal rights (state choice.)
-Finally to reenter, denounce secession, abolish slavery and ratify the 13th Amendment.
Lincoln’s Plan –
"With malice toward none, with “charity for all" Lincoln
(Wade-Davis Bill) demanded a more aggressive prosecution of the war, the faster end to slavery and defeat of the Confederacy.
At first, Andrew Johnson talked harshly, but then he struck another note: "I say, as to the leaders, punishment. I also say leniency,reconciliation and amnesty to the thousands whom they have misled and deceived."
Black Codes – Rules set up by former slave states to regulate the freedoms of former slaves creating a form of quasi-slavery to evade the results of the war. This allowed whites to exploit newly freed African Americans.
The Ku Klux Klan – used violence to scare African Americans from voting and stop them from exercising their rights as American citizens.
President Johnson and Congress did not get along.
Civil Rights Bill: (defines citizenship)
The Radical Republicans became frustrated with Johnson and his abuse of power. They created the Tenure of Office Act, which prevented Johnson from removing government officials without the Senate’s approval, including his own cabinet members. Johnson removed Secretary of War Edwin Stanton and was soon after impeached (for misconduct.) He was not, however, removed from the presidency.
What does impeach mean?
The 13th, 14th and 15th Amendments were all added to the United States Constitution during this period.
13th Amendment – Abolition of Slavery
After gaining freedom, many African Americans were unsure of where to go or what to do. Although many blacks had taken possession of the abandoned lands, including land that had been given to them. Blacks, consequently, were forced to give back the land or remain on the land after signing a labor contract that imposed conditions much like slavery.
14th Amendment – Granted all persons born in the U.S. citizenship.
The amendment provides a broad definition of citizenship, overruling Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857) which had excluded slaves and their descendants from possessing Constitutional rights.
15th Amendment – Allowed African American males to vote
15th Amendment – Allowed African American males to vote.
Pictures: The original copy of the amendment and a drawing depicted of the first African American votes
What was the purpose of the freedman’s bureau?
The Freedmen’s Bureau was created to help newly freed African Americans make the transition to freedom.
-Part of the U.S. army
-Distributed food, clothing and provided medical services to African Americans
-Improved educational opportunities
-Helped African Americans buy land
Explain the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments.
13th-Slavery is outlawed in the U.S
14th-All people born in the U.S. are citizens. All citizens are guaranteed equal protection under the law.
15th-The right to vote cannot be denied because of race.
The End of Reconstruction
This is an 1868 presidential campaign poster for Grant. It was created by superimposing a portrait of Grant onto the platform of the Republican Party.
Jim Crow-Way of Life
Jim Crow Laws were named after the minstrel show character.
This character was considered an offensive and rude representation of African Americans.
JIM CROW LAWS ….set up rules of separate but equal all over America including this shop in Lancaster, Ohio in 1938.
What was the impact of the Reconstruction?