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CIS3023: Programming Fundamentals for CIS Majors II Summer 2010. Linked Lists. “ A list is only as strong as its weakest link .” --Donald Knuth. Course Lecture Slides 23 July 2010. Ganesh Viswanathan. [News] Tropical storm Bonnie hit Biscayne Bay, FL this morning!. Credits: NOAA.

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CIS3023: Programming Fundamentals for CIS Majors IISummer 2010

Linked Lists

“A list is only as strong as its weakest link.” --Donald Knuth

Course Lecture Slides

23 July 2010

GaneshViswanathan

data structure
Data structure
  • A way of structuring, storing and organizing data in computers that facilitates efficient operations on the data.
  • Data structures help to devise algorithms for solving complex operations on the data in an efficient manner.
data structures
Data structures

And many more!

arraylist
ArrayList
  • To insert (remove) an element in (from) the interior of an ArrayList requires shifting of data and is a linear-time O(n) operation!
linked list
Linked List
  • Is a collection of linked nodes (think of a chain!)
  • Memory allocation for nodes is non-contiguous
  • Sports constant time O(1) insertion and updates
linked list variations
Linked List Variations
  • Singly-Linked Lists
  • Doubly-Linked Lists
  • Multi-Linked Lists
  • Circular Linked Lists
  • Unrolled Linked Lists (multiple elements in each node)
  • Lists with only head pointer nodes
  • With head and tail nodes
  • With head, tail and cursor (currently requested) nodes

And many more!

singly linked list
Singly Linked List
  • A set of nodes, each containing some data and a link to the next node.
  • Dynamic data-structure.
singly linked list1
Singly Linked List
  • A set of nodes, each containing some data and a link to the next node.
  • Dynamic data-structure.
  • Advantages:
    • Simple implementation,
    • Efficient, constant time O(1) insertion and removal operation.
singly linked list2
Singly Linked List
  • Node : self-referencing structure
  • Link : reference to a node
  • Linkedlist: List of nodes
  • Has dedicatedhead and tail indicators
operations on singly linked list
Operations on Singly Linked List
  • Create list
  • Add node
    • Add node at head
    • Add node at tail
    • Add node at index i
  • Remove node
    • Remove node at head
    • Remove node at tail
    • Remove node at index i
  • Iterate (traverse)the list
  • Find node at index
      • Find previous node to the one at index i
  • Set node at index ito new node
  • Size of list
  • Clear list
create node
Create (Node)
  • public class Node<T>
  • {
  • // data held by the node
  • public T nodeValue;
  • // next node in the list
  • public Node<T> next;
  • // default constructor with no initial value
  • public Node()
  • {
  • nodeValue = null;
  • next = null;
  • }...
  • }
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Singly Linked List: Add node

Empty List

If list is empty (head == null) Set both head and tail to point to new node

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Singly Linked List: Add node

Add node to head

Insert new node before current head node

Two-step process

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Singly Linked List: Add node

Add node to head

1. Update the next link of a new node, to point to the current head node.

2. Update head link to point to the new node.

slide16

Singly Linked List: Add node

Add node to tail

Insert new node after current tail node

Two-step process

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Singly Linked List: Add node

Add node to head

1. Update the next link of the current tail node, to point to the new node.

2. Update tail link to point to the new node.

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Singly Linked List: Add node

Add node at index i

If node at index i represents head or tail node, Refer previous pseudo-code for “add node at head/ tail”

Else

Two-step process

slide19

Singly Linked List: Add node

Add node at index i

1. Update link of the new node, to point to the "next" node.

2. Update link of the "previous" node, to point to the new node.

slide20

Singly Linked List: Remove node

Remove node from list with only one node

  • Both head and tail point to the (same node) only existing node.
    • Remove link to the node from both the head and tail, by setting both to null.
    • Dispose off the node (set to null)
slide21

Singly Linked List: Remove node

Remove node from head

  • Remove the node pointed to by head.
  • Two-step process
slide22

Singly Linked List: Remove node

Remove node from head

1. Update head link to point to the node, next to the head.

2. Dispose removed node.

slide23

Singly Linked List: Remove node

Remove node from tail

  • Remove the node pointed to by tail.
  • Need access to the previous node of current tail.
  • Three-step process
slide24

Singly Linked List: Remove node

Remove node from tail

1. Update tail link to point to the node, before the tail. In order to find it, list should be traversed first, beginning from the head.

3. Dispose removed node.

2. Set next link of the new tail to NULL.

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Singly Linked List: Remove node

Remove node at index i

  • If index i is not 0 or n-1, this operation removes the node between two nodes.
  • Two-step process
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Singly Linked List: Remove node

Remove node at index i

1. Update next link of the previous node, to point to the next node, relative to the removed node.

2. Dispose removed node.

doubly linked list
Doubly Linked List
  • Has links to both previous and next nodes
  • Advantage: faster (bi-directional) traversal
  • But, more control data (links) stored
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Get more info!

http://java.sun.com/developer/technicalArticles/J2SE/generics/

http://download.oracle.com/docs/cd/E17409_01/javase/tutorial/collections/index.html

  • Java docs: Linked List (doubly linked list)
  • Java docs: Using and programming generics in J2SE 5.0
  • Java docs: Collections framework tutorial
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