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IEEE 754 Floating Point Standard. Normalized REAL Binary Number: ± 1.yyyyyyyyy x 2 eeee IEEE 754 (-1) S x ( 1 + F) x 2 E-127. s exponent+127 significand - 1. 1 bit E (8 bits) F (23 bits). Only Zero is F = 0 and E = 0

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IEEE 754 Floating Point Standard

Normalized REAL Binary Number:

±1.yyyyyyyyy x 2eeee

IEEE 754

(-1)S x ( 1 + F) x 2E-127

s exponent+127 significand - 1

1 bit E (8 bits) F (23 bits)

  • Only Zero is F = 0 and E = 0

  • Simplifies data exchange

  • Compare using integer processes

  • Accuracy and round-off & Overflow and Underflow


IEEE 754 Floating Point Standard

Normalized REAL Binary Number:

±1.yyyyyyyyy x 2eeee

Double Precision

IEEE 754

(-1)S x ( 1 + F) x 2E-1023

s exponent+1023 significand - 1

1 bit E (11 bits) F (20 bits)

significand – 1 (continued)

F (32 bits)


Sequential Network Structures - Review

Input

Y1

Y2

Ym

X1

X2

Xn

Q1

Q2

Qm

Combinational

Logic

Register Q

Z1 Z2 Zk

Clock

Output

clki Y Q

Stability Condition


Flip flop with nor gates
Flip - Flop with NOR Gates

R

Q = R+Q

Q = S+Q

S

Present

State RS

Q 00 01 10 11

0

1

Next State Q


Flip flop with nor gates1
Flip - Flop with NOR Gates

R

Q = R+Q

Q = S+Q

S

Present

State RS

Q 00 01 10 11

0 0

1 1

Next State Q


Flip flop with nor gates2
Flip - Flop with NOR Gates

R

Q = R+Q

Q = S+Q

S

Present

State RS

Q 00 01 10 11

0 0 1

1 1 1

Next State Q


Flip flop with nor gates3
Flip - Flop with NOR Gates

R

Q = R+Q

Q = S+Q

S

Present

State RS

Q 00 01 10 11

0 0 1 0

1 1 1 0

Next State Q


Flip flop with nor gates4
Flip - Flop with NOR Gates

R

Q = R+Q

Q = S+Q

S

Present

State RS

Q 00 01 10 11

0 0 1 0 ?

1 1 1 0 ?

Next State Q


D latch
D-latch

R

C

Q

Q

D

S

D

C

Q


D latch1
D-latch

R

C

Q

Q

D

S

D

C

Q


D flip flop
D flip-flop

D

Q

D

Q

D

Q

Output changes only on the trailing clock edge

D

D

_

l

a

t

c

h

l

a

t

c

h

C

C

Q

C

D

C

Q


D flip flop1
D flip-flop

D

Q

D

Q

D

Q

Output changes only on the trailing clock edge

D

D

_

l

a

t

c

h

l

a

t

c

h

C

C

Q

C

D

C

Q


Sequential Network Structures - Review

Input

Y1

Y2

Ym

X1

X2

Xn

Q1

Q2

Qm

Combinational

Logic

Register Q

Z1 Z2 Zk

Clock

Output

clki Y Q

Stability Condition


Five components of computers
Five Components of Computers

Memory

Control

Input

Datapath

Output

Processor



PC

Next PC Logic

Address

Instruction

Memory

Simplified Overview

Instruction

Access the Instruction from Memory


PC

Next PC Logic

Address

Instruction

Memory

Simplified Overview

Instruction

Register

File

Access the Data from Registers


PC

Next PC Logic

Address

Instruction

Memory

Simplified Overview

Instruction

Register

File

ALU

Perform the Instruction


PC

Next PC Logic

Address

Instruction

Memory

Simplified Overview

Instruction

Addr

Register

File

Data

Memory

ALU

Data

Out

Data In

Write the Result


PC

Next PC Logic

Address

Instruction

Memory

Simplified Overview

Instruction

Addr

Register

File

Data

Memory

ALU

Data

Out

Data In

Timing Assumption


Basic Instruction Fetch

PC + 4 PC

Adder

4

PC

Address

M[PC]

Instruction

Instruction Memory


MIPS - Lite

Consider the following instructions for implementation

INSTRUCTION OP FUNCT

R type

add 0 32

subtract 0 34

AND 0 36

OR 0 37

set on less than 0 42

load word 35 na

store word 43 na

branch equal 4 na


R type Arithmetic Logic Instructions

add rd, rs, rt

R op rs rt rd shamt funct

6 5 5 5 5 6

  • All R type Instructions

  • Read two registers addressed by rs and rt

  • Write one register addressed by rd

  • R[rs] + R[rt] R[rd] for add


Register file
Register File

R

e

a

d

r

e

g

i

s

t

e

r

n

u

m

b

e

r

1

R

e

g

i

s

t

e

r

0

R

e

g

i

s

t

e

r

1

M

u

R

e

a

d

d

a

t

a

1

x

R

e

g

i

s

t

e

r

n

1

R

e

g

i

s

t

e

r

n

R

e

a

d

r

e

g

i

s

t

e

r

n

u

m

b

e

r

2

M

u

R

e

a

d

d

a

t

a

2

x


Register file1
Register File

W

r

i

t

e

C

0

R

e

g

i

s

t

e

r

0

1

D

  • Note: we still use the real clock to determine when to write

n

-

t

o

-

1

C

R

e

g

i

s

t

e

r

n

u

m

b

e

r

d

e

c

o

d

e

r

R

e

g

i

s

t

e

r

1

D

n

1

n

C

R

e

g

i

s

t

e

r

n

1

D

C

R

e

g

i

s

t

e

r

n

D

R

e

g

i

s

t

e

r

d

a

t

a


n to 1 Decoder

RA4

RA3

RA2

RA1

RA0

Multiplexor

OOOO

OOOOO

•••

31

0

1

R0i

R1i

Dri

+

R31i


Register file2
Register File

R

e

a

d

r

e

g

i

s

t

e

r

R

e

a

d

n

u

m

b

e

r

1

d

a

t

a

1

R

e

a

d

r

e

g

i

s

t

e

r

n

u

m

b

e

r

2

R

e

g

i

s

t

e

r

f

i

l

e

W

r

i

t

e

r

e

g

i

s

t

e

r

R

e

a

d

d

a

t

a

2

W

r

i

t

e

d

a

t

a

W

r

i

t

e


R type Arithmetic Logic Instructions

add rd, rs, rt

R op rs rt rd shamt funct

6 5 5 5 5 6

  • All R type Instructions

  • Read two registers addressed by rs and rt

  • Write one register addressed by rd

  • R[rs] + R[rt] R[rd] for add


A

L

U

c

o

n

t

r

o

l

5

R

e

a

d

r

e

g

i

s

t

e

r

1

R

e

a

d

d

a

t

a

1

5

R

e

g

i

s

t

e

r

R

e

a

d

Z

e

r

o

r

e

g

i

s

t

e

r

2

n

u

m

b

e

r

s

R

e

g

i

s

t

e

r

s

D

a

t

a

A

L

U

A

L

U

5

W

r

i

t

e

r

e

s

u

l

t

r

e

g

i

s

t

e

r

R

e

a

d

d

a

t

a

2

W

r

i

t

e

D

a

t

a

d

a

t

a

R

e

g

W

r

i

t

e

a

.

R

e

g

i

s

t

e

r

s

b

.

A

L

U

Dataflow for R – type Arithmetic – Logical Instructions add rd, rs, rt

Instruction R[rs] + R[rt] R[rd]

rs

rt

rd

3

ALU is Combinational Logic


Load Word & Store Word ( I – type )

lw rt, imm16 (rs) or sw rt, imm16 ( rs)

op rs rt imm16

lw # load word

M[ R[rs] + sign_ext(imm16) ] R[rt]

sw # store word

R[rt] M[ R[rs] + sign_ext(imm16) ]


load word

M[ R[rs] + sign_ext(imm16) ] R[rt]

Registers

Data Memory

rs

rt

R1

R2

Rw

Dw

Dr1

Dr2

ALU

Addr Dr

Dw

imm16

sign

ext

32

16


store word

R[rt] M[ R[rs] + sign_ext(imm16) ]

Registers

Data Memory

rs

rt

R1

R2

Rw

Dw

Dr1

Dr2

ALU

Addr Dr

Dw

imm16

sign

ext

32

16


beq rs, rt, imm16 I -type

op rs rt imm16

  • Zero =1 iff rs - rt = 0

  • If Zero = 1

  • SUM (ShLt2[Sign_Ext(imm16)] + PC+4) PC

  • If Zero = 0

  • PC+4 PC

Zero (PC+4) + Zero SUM[ (ShLt2[Sign_Ext(imm16)])+PC+4]

PC


Zero (PC+4) + Zero SUM[ (ShLt2[Sign_Ext(imm16)])+PC+4]

PC

Ex: imm16 is 1011 0000 0011 1001


Zero (PC+4) + Zero SUM[ (ShLt2[Sign_Ext(imm16)])+PC+4]

PC

Ex: imm16 is 1011 0000 0011 1001

Sign_Ext(imm16) is

1111 1111 1111 1111 1011 0000 0011 1001


Zero (PC+4) + Zero SUM[ (ShLt2[Sign_Ext(imm16)])+PC+4]

PC

Ex: imm16 is 1011 0000 0011 1001

Sign_Ext(imm16) is

1111 1111 1111 1111 1011 0000 0011 1001

ShLt2[Sign_Ext(imm16)] is

1111 1111 1111 11101100 00001110 0100


Zero (PC+4) + Zero SUM[ (ShLt2[Sign_Ext(imm16)])+PC+4]

Zero =1 iff rs - rt = 0 PC

PC+4

Sum to

PC

ALU

Shift

Left

2

branch equal

imm16

sign

ext

32

16


Zero (PC+4) + Zero SUM[ (ShLt2[Sign_Ext(imm16)])+PC+4]

Zero =1 iff rs - rt = 0 PC

PC+4

Sum to

PC

ALU

branch equal

Shift

Left

2

ALU op

Registers

Zero

rs

rt

R1

R2

Rw

Dw

Dr1

Dr2

ALU

imm16

sign

ext

32

16


P

C

S

r

c

M

A

d

d

u

x

A

L

U

A

d

d

4

r

e

s

u

l

t

S

h

i

f

t

l

e

f

t

2

R

e

g

i

s

t

e

r

s

A

L

U

o

p

e

r

a

t

i

o

n

3

R

e

a

d

M

e

m

W

r

i

t

e

A

L

U

S

r

c

R

e

a

d

r

e

g

i

s

t

e

r

1

P

C

R

e

a

d

a

d

d

r

e

s

s

R

e

a

d

M

e

m

t

o

R

e

g

d

a

t

a

1

Z

e

r

o

r

e

g

i

s

t

e

r

2

I

n

s

t

r

u

c

t

i

o

n

A

L

U

A

L

U

R

e

a

d

W

r

i

t

e

R

e

a

d

A

d

d

r

e

s

s

r

e

s

u

l

t

M

d

a

t

a

r

e

g

i

s

t

e

r

d

a

t

a

2

M

u

I

n

s

t

r

u

c

t

i

o

n

u

x

W

r

i

t

e

m

e

m

o

r

y

D

a

t

a

x

d

a

t

a

m

e

m

o

r

y

W

r

i

t

e

R

e

g

W

r

i

t

e

d

a

t

a

3

2

1

6

S

i

g

n

M

e

m

R

e

a

d

e

x

t

e

n

d

Dataflow Review Fig 5.13 page 354


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