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Chapter 29. The Animal Kingdom The Protostomes Invertebrates Video. Coelom. Fluid-filled space lined w/mesoderm; between digestive tube and outer body wall Tube-within-a-tube plan Inner tube no longer attached to body wall. Advantages of Coelom.

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Chapter 29

Chapter 29

The Animal Kingdom

The Protostomes

Invertebrates Video


Coelom
Coelom

  • Fluid-filled space lined w/mesoderm; between digestive tube and outer body wall

  • Tube-within-a-tube plan

  • Inner tube no longer attached to body wall


Advantages of coelom
Advantages of Coelom

  • Can serve as hydrostatic skeleton (fluid under pressure)

    • Contracting muscles push against tube of fluid

    • Greater range of movement

    • Swim, crawl, walk

  • Space, cushion for internal organs, gonads

  • Transport of food, O2, waste


Phylum nemertea
Phylum Nemertea

  • Ribbon worms, proboscis worms

  • Proboscis = long, hollow muscular tube

    • Can be everted from anterior end of body

    • Wrap around prey

    • Sharp, sticky or toxic

  • Functionally acoelomate (chamber around proboscis is true coelomic space = rhynchocoel)

  • Circulatory system – blood vessels, no heart


Fig. 33-3l

A ribbon worm


Phylum mollusca clams oysters octopods snails slugs giant squid
Phylum MolluscaClams, oysters, octopods, snails, slugs, giant squid

  • Basic characteristics

    • Soft body – usually covered by shell

    • Foot – locomotion

    • Visceral mass – above foot

    • Mantle – cover visceral mass

    • Radula – rasplike, belt of teeth

    • Coelom – reduced, small around certain organs

      • Hemocoel - blood


Fig. 33-15

Nephridium

Heart

Visceral mass

Coelom

Intestine

Gonads

Mantle

Stomach

Mantle

cavity

Mouth

Shell

Radula

Anus

Gill

Radula

Mouth

Nerve

cords

Esophagus

Foot


Phylum mollusca
Phylum Mollusca

  • Digestive

    • Mouth, buccal cavity, esophagus, stomach, intestine, anus

    • Radula in buccal cavity

  • Circulatory – open (most)

    • Blood = hemolymph – bathes tissues

    • Heart – aorta – blood vessels – sinuses (make up hemocoel) – blood vessels – gills – heart

    • Closed system – active squid, octopods

      • Blood in blood vessels completely


Phylum mollusca1
Phylum Mollusca

  • Excretory

    • Metanephridia – funnels waste from fluid in coelom to excretory pore


4 classes of mollusks
4 Classes of Mollusks

  • 1. Polyplacophora – “many plates”

    • Chitons

    • Shell of 8 dorsal plates, head reduced, no eyes or tentacles

  • 2. Gastropoda

    • Well-developed head w/tentacles, 2 simple eyes, foot

    • Torsion – twist visceral mass; allows head to enter shell 1st before foot

    • Snails – single, spiral coiled shell

    • Limpets – shells like flat dunce cap

    • Nudibranchs (sea slug) – no shell



Fig. 33-17

(a) A land snail

(b) A sea slug


Fig. 33-18

Intestine

Mantle

cavity

Stomach

Anus

Mouth


Nudibranch sea slug
Nudibranch (Sea slug)


  • 3. Bivalvia

    • Clams, oysters, mussels, scallops

    • 2 part shell

    • Nervous – 3 pair ganglia, 2 pair nerve cords

    • Eyespots

    • Suspension feeders – water in through siphon (no radula)



Fig. 33-20

Coelom

Hinge area

Mantle

Gut

Heart

Adductor

muscle

Digestive

gland

Anus

Mouth

Excurrent

siphon

Shell

Water

flow

Palp

Foot

Incurrent

siphon

Mantle

cavity

Gonad

Gill


  • 4. Cephalopoda – “head foot”

    • Swim fast, predators

    • Mouth w/tentacles (suckers to seize prey)

    • Radula + 2 beaks

    • Mantle has siphon

    • Jet propulsion

    • Head – well-developed eyes

    • Octopus – no shell

    • Squid – reduced shell inside body

    • Nautilus – coiled shell

    • Defense

      • Chromatophores – change color

      • Ink sac – black liquid


Fig. 33-21

Octopus

Squid

Chambered

nautilus


Phylum annelida ringed
Phylum Annelida – “ringed”

  • Segmented worms

    • Facilitates locomotion

    • Coelom divided – each segment own muscles

    • Setae – bristle-like structures - traction

  • Bilateral symmetry

  • Tubular body

  • Nervous

    • Simple brain (paired ganglia) + ventral nerve cord

    • Each seg. = pair ganglia + lateral nerves


Phylum annelida
Phylum Annelida

  • Closed circulatory system

  • Complete digestive tract

    • Mouth - anus

  • Respiration

    • cutaneous

  • Excretion

    • Pair metanephridia in each segment


Class polychaeta many bristles
Class Polychaeta – “many bristles”

  • Marine

  • Parapodia – pair of paddle-shaped appendages on each body segment

    • Locomotion, gas exchange, bear setae

  • Head w/eyes and antennae

  • Optional – tentacles, palps

  • Separate sexes

    • Gametes in water same time (lunar, tides)


Fig. 33-23

Parapodia


Tubeworms polychaetes
Tubeworms - Polychaetes


Class oligochaeta few bristles
Class Oligochaeta – few bristles

  • Fresh water/terrestrial

  • No parapodia, few bristles

  • Lack well-developed head

  • Hermaphrodites


Class oligochaeta lumbricus terrestris
Class Oligochaeta - Lumbricus terrestris

  • Cuticle

  • Mucus layer

  • Muscles in body wall

  • Relationship with soil

  • Complex digestive system

    • Pharynx – esophagus – crop (store) – gizzard (grind) – intestine (digest, absorb) – anus

  • Circulatory system – closed

    • Dorsal and ventral BV; BV in segments

    • 5 pair BV by esophagus



Class oligochaeta lumbricus terrestris1
Class Oligochaeta - Lumbricus terrestris

  • Gas exchange

    • Moist skin

  • Excretion

    • Paired metanephridia – almost every segment

  • Nervous

    • Simple brain (pair cerebral ganglia above pharynx and subpharyngeal ganglia below pharynx)

    • Ventral nerve cord

    • Pair fused ganglia – each segment – coordinate muscles


Class oligochaeta lumbricus terrestris2
Class Oligochaeta - Lumbricus terrestris

  • Reproduction

    • Hermaphroditic

    • 2 worms exchange sperms

    • Clitellum - ring of epidermis, secretion


Fig. 33-22

Cuticle

Septum

(partition

between

segments)

Epidermis

Coelom

Circular

muscle

Metanephridium

Longitudinal

muscle

Anus

Dorsal vessel

Chaetae

Intestine

Fused

nerve

cords

Ventral

vessel

Nephrostome

Metanephridium

Clitellum

Esophagus

Crop

Pharynx

Giant Australian earthworm

Intestine

Gizzard

Cerebral ganglia

Mouth

Ventral nerve cord with

segmental ganglia

Subpharyngeal

ganglion

Blood

vessels


Class hirudinea leeches
Class Hirudinea - leeches

  • Blood-sucking parasites (some nonparasitic)

    • Suck out blood and store in digestive tract

    • Hirudin – anticoagulant – from crop; ensures full meal

  • No setae or parapodia

  • Muscular suckers both body ends



Lophophorate phyla
Lophophorate phyla

  • Ring of tentacles around mouth for capturing particles in water


Fig. 33-14

Lophophore

Lophophore

(a) Ectoproct (sea mat)

(b) Brachiopods


Phylum rotifera
Phylum Rotifera

  • “wheel animals”

  • Crown of cilia on anterior end

    • Beat rapidly – swim / feed


Fig. 33-13

Jaws

Crown

of cilia

Anus

Stomach

0.1 mm


Phylum nematoda roundworms
Phylum Nematoda - roundworms

  • Decomposition, nutrient recyclers

  • Free-living; parasites

  • Body – point both ends, cuticle

  • Epidermis unusual – no composed of distinct cells

  • Pseudocoelom – fluid – muscle contraction, nutrient distribution

  • Bilateral symmetry


Fig. 33-25

25 µm


Phylum nematoda
Phylum Nematoda

  • Complete digestive system – 3 tissue layers

  • Lack specific circulatory parts

  • Sexes usually separate

  • No well-define head



Examples of nematodes
Examples of Nematodes

  • Ascaris – intestinal human parasite

    • Eggs in feces

    • Poor sanitation – eggs  soil (fertilizer)

    • Ingest eggs on unwashed fruit/veg. OR hands

  • Hookworm – lining human intestine, suck blood

    • Eggs – feces – host barefoot – larvae into skin / blood

  • Trichina – small intestine mammals

    • Undercooked, infected meat

    • Encyst in skeletal muscle; cysts calcify

  • Pinworm - large intestine, kids

    • Eggs ingested – dirty hands

    • Female worms – anal region – deposit eggs - itching


Fig. 33-26

Muscle tissue

Encysted juveniles

50 µm


Phylum arthropoda jointed foot very successful
Phylum Arthropoda - “jointed foot” – very successful

  • Segmented body – specialization

  • Exoskeleton – chitin + protein

    • Protection, water loss, molting (disadvantage)

  • Paired, jointed appendages

    • Swim, walk, get prey, sensory, reproduction

  • Nervous system – sense organs

    • Antennae, eyes, ganglia

  • Open circulatory system - hemocoel


Phylum arthropoda
Phylum Arthropoda

  • Gas exchange

    • Water – gills

    • Land – tracheal tubes, book lungs


Onychophorans missing link between annelids and arthropods velvet worms
Onychophorans - “missing link” between annelids and arthropods; “velvet worms”

  • Like Annelids

    • Internal segments

  • Like Arthropods

    • Open circulation

    • Tracheal tubes

    • Unbranched legs

    • Jaws from appendages


3 subphyla of arthropods subphylum chelicerata
3 Subphyla of Arthropods:Subphylum Chelicerata

  • Horseshoe crabs, arachnids

  • No antennae

  • Chelicerae (1st pair) – fanglike feeding appendages

  • Body = cephalothorax + abdomen

  • Pedipalps (2nd pair) = locomotion, food, defense or copulation

  • 4 pair legs on cephalothorax - walking


Fig. 33-3r

An onychophoran


Subphylum chelicerata horseshoe crabs
Subphylum Chelicerata – Horseshoe Crabs

  • Living fossil

  • Tail for locomotion

  • 5 pair walking legs



Subphylum chelicerata arachnids
Subphylum Chelicerata - Arachnids

  • Spiders, scorpions, ticks, harvestmen, mites

  • Most carnivorous

  • 6 pair jointed appendages


Fig. 33-31

50 µm

Scorpion

Dust mite

Web-building spider


Arachnids spiders
Arachnids - Spiders

  • 1st pair – chelicerae – penetrate prey

  • 2nd pair – pedipalps – hold, chew food

  • Next 4 pairs – walking

  • 8 eyes – 2 rows, 4 each

  • Gas exchange

    • Tracheal tubes, book lungs or both

  • Glands – abdomen – silk (spinnerets)

  • All spiders – poison glands (few toxic to humans)


Fig. 33-32

Stomach

Intestine

Brain

Heart

Digestive

gland

Eyes

Ovary

Poison

gland

Book lung

Anus

Gonopore

(exit for eggs)

Pedipalp

Chelicera

Spinnerets

Sperm

receptacle

Silk gland


Arachnids mites and ticks
Arachnids - Mites and Ticks

  • Nuisance

    • Eat crops, infest livestock, pets, us

    • disease

  • Mites

    • chiggers – red itchy welts

  • Ticks

    • Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Texas cattle fever, relapsing fever, Lyme disease


Trilobites
Trilobites

  • Early arthropod – extinct now

  • 3 lobes of exoskeleton

  • Led to chelicerates



Subphylum crustacea
Subphylum Crustacea

  • Lobsters, crabs, shrimp, barnacles

    • Consume algae detritus

    • Compose much zooplankton

  • Mandibles – jaw like, no chelicerae

    • Hard, 3rd pair appendages, sides of mouth, bite/grind food

  • Biramous appendages – 2 jointed branches

  • 2 pair antennae (sensory)

  • Nauplius larva – 1st stage after hatching; has only most anterior 3 pair of appendages

  • 1st and 2nd Maxillae – after mandibles; 2 pair; manipulate, hold food

  • Other appendages – walk, swim, transmit sperm, carry eggs/young/sense


Subphylum crustacea1
Subphylum Crustacea

  • Gas exchange - gills

  • Excretion – 2 large antennal (green) glands

  • Compound eyes

  • Statocysts – detect gravity

  • Reproduction - separate sexes

    • Male sperm to female; fertilized egg carried on female

    • New animals – resemble adult or many larval stages w/molting


Orders of subphylum crustacea
Orders of Subphylum Crustacea

  • Isopods – pill bugs, sowbugs (5-15 mm)

  • Copepods – zooplankton (microscopic)

  • Decapods – lobster, crayfish, crab, shrimp


Fig. 33-38

(a) Ghost crab

(b) Krill

(c) Barnacles


Fig. 33-29

Cephalothorax

Abdomen

Antennae

(sensory

reception)

Thorax

Head

Swimming appendages

(one pair located

under each

abdominal segment)

Walking legs

Pincer (defense)

Mouthparts (feeding)


Lobster anatomy a decapod crustacean
Lobster Anatomy – a decapod crustacean

  • Carapace

    • Covers cephalothorax

    • Chitin w/ calcium salts

  • Antennae – 2 pair

    • sensory

  • Mandibles – 1 pair

    • Bite/grind food

  • Maxillae – 2 pair

    • feeding

  • Maxillipeds – 3 pair

    • Chop food, pass to mouth


Lobster anatomy a decapod crustacean1
Lobster Anatomy – a decapod crustacean

  • Chelipeds – 1 pair

    • Pinching claws

  • Walking legs – 4 pair

  • Reproductive appendages

    • Male – sperm transfer

  • Swimmerets

    • Small, paddle like – swim, hold eggs

  • Uropods

    • Large, flattened structure

  • Telson

    • Flattened posterior end of abdomen

  • Uropod + telson – fan –shape; swim backward



Subphylum uniramia
Subphylum Uniramia

  • Insects, centipedes, millipedes

  • Uniramous appendages – unbranched

  • 1 pair antennae

  • Jawlike mandibles


Class insecta of subphylum uniramia
Class Insecta of Subphylum Uniramia

  • Most successful animals

    • Diverse, geographic distribution, # species, # individuals

  • Articulated = jointed

  • Tracheated = having tracheal tubes (gas exchange)

  • Hexapod – have 6 feet


Class insecta
Class Insecta

  • Body – 3 distinct parts

    • Head

      • 1 pair antennae

      • Simple OR compound eyes (sensory)

      • Mouthparts – piercing, chewing, sucking, lapping

    • Thorax

      • 3 pair legs, 1-2 pair wings

    • Abdomen


Fig. 33-35

Abdomen

Thorax

Head

Compound eye

Antennae

Heart

Cerebral ganglion

Dorsal

artery

Crop

Anus

Vagina

Malpighian

tubules

Ovary

Tracheal tubes

Mouthparts

Nerve cords


Class insecta1
Class Insecta

  • Tracheal system

    • Spiracles = opening in body wall, air enters

    • Spiracles – tracheal tubes – internal organs

  • Open circulation

  • Excretion

    • 2+ Malpighian tubules – receive waste from blood, concentrate waste, discharge to intestine; conserve water


Class insecta2
Class Insecta

  • Reproduction

    • Separate sexes

    • Internal fertilization

    • Direct development (hatch as small adult) OR

    • Molt during development  metamorphosis

      • Incomplete metamorphosis

        • Egg – larva – adult

        • Grasshopper, cockroach

      • Complete metamorphosis – 4 stages

        • Egg – larva – pupa – adult

        • Butterfly, bee, flea

  • Exoskeleton – water loss, protection

  • Flight


Fig. 33-36

(a) Larva (caterpillar)

(b) Pupa

(c) Later-stage

pupa

(d) Emerging

adult

(e) Adult



Class insecta impact on humans
Class Insecta – Impact on Humans

Good

Bad

Destroy crops, buildings, clothing

disease

  • Pollination

  • Destroy harmful insects

  • Food webs

  • Nutrient recyclers

  • Products

    • Honey, beeswax, shellac, silk


Class chilopoda centipedes
Class Chilopoda - centipedes

  • “hundred-legged”

  • 1 pair legs/segment (average 30 total)

    • Long = fast

  • Uniramous appendages

  • carnivorous



Class diplopoda millipedes
Class Diplopoda - millipedes

  • “thousand-legged”

  • 2 pair legs/segment

    • slow

  • herbivorous



Both chilopoda and diplopoda
Both Chilopoda and Diplopoda

  • Terrestrial

  • Head + elongated trunk

    • Many segments

    • Uniramous legs







Match the order of insect with the correct example
Match the Order of Insect with the Correct Example

Order

Example

Sucking lice

Grasshopper

Damselfly

Chinch bug

Silverfish

termite

  • Thysanura

  • Orthoptera

  • Isoptera

  • Odonata

  • Hemiptera

  • Anoplura


Match the order of insect with the correct example1
Match the Order of Insect with the Correct Example

Order

Example

Moth

Aphid

Ant

Housefly

Beetle

flea

  • Syphonaptera

  • Homoptera

  • Diptera

  • Lepidoptera

  • Hymenoptera

  • coleoptera


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