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Asterids – Part 1 “Basal” Asterids , Lamiids. Spring 2013. Fig. 8.1. Asterid characters. Molecular data Sympetalous corollas Epipetalous stamens Number of stamens = number of petals

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Asterids – Part 1 “Basal” Asterids , Lamiids

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Asterids – Part 1

“Basal” Asterids, Lamiids

Spring 2013

Fig. 8.1

Asterid characters

  • Molecular data

  • Sympetalous corollas

  • Epipetalous stamens

  • Number of stamens = number of


  • Ovules with a single integument and a thin nucellus (reduction from two integuments and a thick nucellus)

  • Iridoidcompounds

Asterid characters

# stamens = # petals




Sympetaly and epipetalous stamens

Fig. 8.83

Asterid taxa

“Basal” Asterids

Order Cornales – dogwoods

Order Ericales – azaleas, blueberries, cranberries


Order Solanales – potatoes, tomatoes, peppers

Order Gentianales – gentians, milkweeds, coffee

Order Lamiales – mints, olives, snapdragons


Order Apiales – ginseng, carrots, dill, parsley

Order Dipsacales – honeysuckle, elderberry

Order Asterales – bluebells, sunflowers

Core Asterids

Asterid taxa – Part 1

“Basal” Asterids

Order Ericales

Ericaceae – blueberries, heaths


Order Gentianales

*Apocynaceae – dogbanes, milkweeds

Rubiaceae – coffee, quinine

Order Solanales

*Solanaceae– potatoes, tomatoes, pepper

Order Lamiales

*Lamiaceae – mints

Campanulids (Part 2)

*family required for recognition

“Basal” Asterids:Ericales: Ericaceae(The Heath or Blueberry Family)

  • Cosmopolitan; most diverse in montane habitats in E. Asia, E North America, S Africa, Australia. Favor acid soils; sunny or part-shaded habitats

  • Trees, shrubs, lianas, occasionally mycoparasitic herbs lacking chlorophyll; leaves usually alternate and spiral

  • Diversity: 4,100 species in 124 genera

  • Flowers: Often showy. Sepals 4-5; petals 4-5, connate forming a cylindrical to urn-shaped corolla; stamens (3) 8-10; anthers inverted, often with appendages, and poricidal dehiscence, pollen grains often in tetrads; carpels 2-10, connate, superior to inferior ovary; fruit a septic. or loculic. capsule, berry, drupe

  • Significant features: anthers often with poricidal dehiscence & sometimes with appendages; leaves often coriaceous

  • Special uses: blueberries & cranberries (Vaccinium), Rhododendron and allies (Rhododendron, Erica, Kalmia, Pieris) are showy ornamentals

  • Family not required

Ericaceaeanthers (Fig. 8.89)

Ericaceae: Rhododendron

-ecologically important in forests in

the Eastern U.S. and Eastern Asia

-the deciduous taxa are known as


Sarraceniaceae—another origin of carnivory by pitchers

Asterid taxa – Part 1

“Basal” Asterids

Order Ericales

Ericaceae – blueberries, heaths


Order Gentianales

*Apocynaceae – dogbanes, milkweeds

Rubiaceae – coffee, quinine

Order Solanales

*Solanaceae– potatoes, tomatoes, pepper

Order Lamiales

*Lamiaceae – mints

Campanulids (Part 2)

*family required for recognition

Asterids -- Lamiids:Gentianales: Apocynaceae(The Milkweed Family; incl. Asclepiadaceae)

  • Widespread in tropical and subtropical regions; some in temperate regions

  • Trees, shrubs, herbs, lianas, vines with laticifers and usually milky sap

  • Diversity: ca. 4,600 species in ca. 400 genera

  • Flowers: Sepals usu. 5; petals usu. 5, connate forming bell- funnel- or tubular-shaped corolla; stamens usually 5, filaments always adnate to the corolla, anthers distinct or connate and forming a ring to fused to the stylar head; staminal outgrowths (corona) often present and petal-like; carpels usually 2, connate by styles/stigmas only & ovaries distinct to fully connate, superior ovary; apex of style expanded and highly modified, forming a 5-sided stylarhead, secreting viscin; fruits often paired, each ovary developing into a dry follicle, drupe or berry

  • Significant features: Usually opposite leaves; pollen in sticky masses (w/ viscin) or in pollinia; seeds flattened, often with a tuft of hairs

  • Special uses: Some chemical uses (e.g., Catharanthus, “Madagascar periwinkle”) and ornamentals (Asclepias, Vinca, Plumeria, Nerium)

  • Family required



anther views



G: stylar head

Apocynaceae – Groups without pollinia









pair of pollinia

Apocynaceaewith pollinia (Asclepiadoideae)






Apocynaceae: Asclepias

-plants herbaceous, stems erect

to leaning

-leaves usually opposite, sometimes

alternate or whorled

-inflorescence an umbel

-corona of 5 hooded fleshy bodies,

each usually with an incurved horn

but lacking a crest

-pollen in pollinia, the pollinia


-fruit a dry, ovoid or lanceolate

follicle, one of the pair often aborting

Asterids -- Lamiids:Gentianales: Rubiaceae(The Coffee or Madder Family)

  • Cosmopolitan, most diverse in the tropics and subtropical regions

  • Trees, shrubs lianas or herbs, vines, shrubs; leaves opposite or whorled

  • Diversity: Ca. 12,000 species in ca. 600 genera

  • Flowers: usually bisexual and radial; sepals 4-5, connate; petals 4-5, connate, forming a funnel shaped corolla; stamens usually 4 or 5, adnate to corolla; carpels usually 2 (-5), connate, inferior ovary; fruit a loculicidal or septicidal capsule, berry, drupe, or schizocarp

  • Significant features: interpetiolar stipules (connate stipules)

  • Special uses: Major commodity is coffee (Coffea); anti-malarial drug obtained from the bark of Cinchona (quinine); ipecac (make-U-vomit) comes from Psychotria; gardenias (Gardenia), Pentas, and Ixora provide ornamentals

  • Family not required


interpetiolar stipules





Asterids -- Lamiids:Solanales: Solanaceae(The Potato or Nightshade Family)

  • Widespread but most diverse in the neotropics

  • Herbs, shrubs, trees, vines; leaves alternate; often with a ‘solanaceous smell’

  • Diversity: 2,450 species in 91-102 genera

  • Flowers: Sepals 5, connate; petals 5, connate, forming variously tubular corolla, plicate (folded) ; stamens 5, filaments adnate to corolla, sometimes anthers connivant; carpels usually 2 (-5), connate, oriented obliquely to the median plane of the flower; superior ovary; fruit usually a berry (occ. a capsule, schizocarp or nutlet)

  • Significant features: Complex chemistry with solanacoustropanealkaloids (belladonna/atropine, nicotine, capsaicin, etc.); stems with internal phloem

  • Special uses: Many fruits and vegetables (potatoes & tomatoes - Solanum, peppers - Capsicum), tobacco (Nicotiana), some ornamentals (Petunia)

  • Family required; required genus: Solanum

Solanaceae diversity

Solanaceae: Solanum

-herbs or shrubs

-corolla regular, rotate, 5-merous,

deeply lobed

-anthers forming a tube around

the style (connivent), with terminal

openings; filaments short

-fruit a berry, usually 2-locular

-ca. 1,400 species, mostly tropical

Economic plants and products:


  • Edibles:

  • Cayenne pepper (Capsicum)

  • Eggplant (Solanum)

  • Green pepper (Capsicum)

  • Red pepper (Capsicum)

  • Potato (Solanum)

  • Tomato (Solanum)


Economic plants and products:

  • Medicinal/toxic plants

  • ~ Alkaloids!

  • Belladona (Atropa)

  • Henbane (Hyoscyamus)

  • Jimson-weed (Datura)

  • Nightshade (Solanum)

  • Mandrake (Mandragora)

  • Tobacco (Nicotiana)

Fig. 8.83


-gland-headed hairs


-oligosaccharides (instead of starch)

-anther anatomy

-protein inclusions in the nuclei of

mesophyll cells

-endosperm with a micropylarhaustorium

-molecular data

-ca. 22 families and 20,000 species

Major Families of Lamiales

  • *Lamiaceae – mints

  • Oleaceae – olives, ashes, lilacs

  • Orobanchaceae – louseworts, beechdrops, Indian paintbrushes

  • Plantaginaceae – snapdragons, vervains, penstemons

  • Scrophulariaceae – mulleins, figworts

*family required for recognition

Asterids -- Lamiids:Lamiales: Lamiaceae(The Mint Family; Labiatae)

  • Cosmopolitan

  • Herbs, shrubs, trees; stems square in herbaceous taxa

  • Diversity: Ca. 6,800 species in 236-238 genera

  • Flowers: Sepals 5, connate, calyx radial or bilateral; petals 5, connate, bilabiate; stamens 4, didynamous to more or less equal; carpels 2, 2 ovules per carpel, connate, styles terminal to an often gynobasic, superior, often deeply 4-lobed ovary; fruit a drupe w/ 1-4 pits, an indehiscent 4-seeded pod, or a schizocarp splitting into 4 nutlets or drupelets

  • Significant features: Opposite leaves (usually); aromatic volatile compounds - mint oils; inflorescences with main axis indeterminate and determinate (cymose) lateral axes, these often congested into pseudowhorls (verticillasters)

  • Special uses: Many herbs: oregano (Origanum), basil (Basilicum), peppermint/spearmint (Mentha), sage (Salvia), thyme (Thymus); teak wood (Tectona); ornamentals (e.g., Salvia, Callicarpa)

  • Family required




  • Corolla:

    • zygomorphic

    • sympetalous

    • bilabiate

  • Stamens:

    • 4, didynamous

    • epipetalous

  • Ovary:

    • 2-carpellate

    • deeply 4-lobed

    • 4 locules

  • Gynobasic style

  • Schizocarp (4 nutlets)

  • Square stems (herbaceous taxa)

  • Opposite leaves

  • Inflorescence: false whorls (verticils or verticillasters)

Stachys floridana


Note verticillate whorls

of flowers at each node








Economic plants and products:

  • Condiments & perfumes:

  • Basil (Ocimum)

  • Lavender (Lavandula)

  • Oregano (Origanum)

  • Peppermint (Mentha)

  • Rosemary (Rosmarinus)

  • Sage (Salvia)

  • Spearmint (Mentha)

  • Thyme (Thymus)



Economic plants and products:

  • Ornamental plants:

  • Beautyberry (Callicarpa)

  • Coleus (Coleus)

  • Salvia (Salvia)

Other interesting Lamiales


(hemi- and holoparasitic



(olive family)




on oaks)



Castilleja (often parasitizes

grasses and various forbs

Pedicularis (often

parasitizes the heath family)

Other cool Lamiales


Lentibulariaceae –

more carnivorous plants


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