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Asterids – Part 1 “Basal” Asterids , Lamiids. Spring 2013. Fig. 8.1. Asterid characters. Molecular data Sympetalous corollas Epipetalous stamens Number of stamens = number of petals

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Asterids – Part 1

“Basal” Asterids, Lamiids

Spring 2013



Asterid characters
Asterid characters

  • Molecular data

  • Sympetalous corollas

  • Epipetalous stamens

  • Number of stamens = number of

    petals

  • Ovules with a single integument and a thin nucellus (reduction from two integuments and a thick nucellus)

  • Iridoidcompounds


Asterid characters

# stamens = # petals

Unitegmic,

tenuinucellate

ovules

Sympetaly and epipetalous stamens



Asterid taxa
Asterid taxa

“Basal” Asterids

Order Cornales – dogwoods

Order Ericales – azaleas, blueberries, cranberries

Lamiids

Order Solanales – potatoes, tomatoes, peppers

Order Gentianales – gentians, milkweeds, coffee

Order Lamiales – mints, olives, snapdragons

Campanulids

Order Apiales – ginseng, carrots, dill, parsley

Order Dipsacales – honeysuckle, elderberry

Order Asterales – bluebells, sunflowers

Core Asterids


Asterid taxa part 1
Asterid taxa – Part 1

“Basal” Asterids

Order Ericales

Ericaceae – blueberries, heaths

Lamiids

Order Gentianales

*Apocynaceae – dogbanes, milkweeds

Rubiaceae – coffee, quinine

Order Solanales

*Solanaceae– potatoes, tomatoes, pepper

Order Lamiales

*Lamiaceae – mints

Campanulids (Part 2)

*family required for recognition


Basal asterids ericales ericaceae the heath or blueberry family
“Basal” Asterids:Ericales: Ericaceae(The Heath or Blueberry Family)

  • Cosmopolitan; most diverse in montane habitats in E. Asia, E North America, S Africa, Australia. Favor acid soils; sunny or part-shaded habitats

  • Trees, shrubs, lianas, occasionally mycoparasitic herbs lacking chlorophyll; leaves usually alternate and spiral

  • Diversity: 4,100 species in 124 genera

  • Flowers: Often showy. Sepals 4-5; petals 4-5, connate forming a cylindrical to urn-shaped corolla; stamens (3) 8-10; anthers inverted, often with appendages, and poricidal dehiscence, pollen grains often in tetrads; carpels 2-10, connate, superior to inferior ovary; fruit a septic. or loculic. capsule, berry, drupe

  • Significant features: anthers often with poricidal dehiscence & sometimes with appendages; leaves often coriaceous

  • Special uses: blueberries & cranberries (Vaccinium), Rhododendron and allies (Rhododendron, Erica, Kalmia, Pieris) are showy ornamentals

  • Family not required


Ericaceaeanthers (Fig. 8.89)


Ericaceae: Rhododendron

-ecologically important in forests in

the Eastern U.S. and Eastern Asia

-the deciduous taxa are known as

azaleas


Sarraceniaceae—another origin of carnivory by pitchers


Asterid taxa part 11
Asterid taxa – Part 1

“Basal” Asterids

Order Ericales

Ericaceae – blueberries, heaths

Lamiids

Order Gentianales

*Apocynaceae – dogbanes, milkweeds

Rubiaceae – coffee, quinine

Order Solanales

*Solanaceae– potatoes, tomatoes, pepper

Order Lamiales

*Lamiaceae – mints

Campanulids (Part 2)

*family required for recognition


Asterids lamiids gentianales apocynaceae the milkweed family incl asclepiadaceae
Asterids -- Lamiids:Gentianales: Apocynaceae(The Milkweed Family; incl. Asclepiadaceae)

  • Widespread in tropical and subtropical regions; some in temperate regions

  • Trees, shrubs, herbs, lianas, vines with laticifers and usually milky sap

  • Diversity: ca. 4,600 species in ca. 400 genera

  • Flowers: Sepals usu. 5; petals usu. 5, connate forming bell- funnel- or tubular-shaped corolla; stamens usually 5, filaments always adnate to the corolla, anthers distinct or connate and forming a ring to fused to the stylar head; staminal outgrowths (corona) often present and petal-like; carpels usually 2, connate by styles/stigmas only & ovaries distinct to fully connate, superior ovary; apex of style expanded and highly modified, forming a 5-sided stylarhead, secreting viscin; fruits often paired, each ovary developing into a dry follicle, drupe or berry

  • Significant features: Usually opposite leaves; pollen in sticky masses (w/ viscin) or in pollinia; seeds flattened, often with a tuft of hairs

  • Special uses: Some chemical uses (e.g., Catharanthus, “Madagascar periwinkle”) and ornamentals (Asclepias, Vinca, Plumeria, Nerium)

  • Family required


paired

fruits

anther views

separate

ovaries

G: stylar head


Apocynaceae – Groups without pollinia

Vinca

Plumeria

Catharanthus

Apocynum

Thevetia

Nerium

oleander


corona

pair of pollinia


Apocynaceaewith pollinia (Asclepiadoideae)

Ceropegia

Hoya

Calotropus

Asclepias

Stapelia


Apocynaceae: Asclepias

-plants herbaceous, stems erect

to leaning

-leaves usually opposite, sometimes

alternate or whorled

-inflorescence an umbel

-corona of 5 hooded fleshy bodies,

each usually with an incurved horn

but lacking a crest

-pollen in pollinia, the pollinia

suspended

-fruit a dry, ovoid or lanceolate

follicle, one of the pair often aborting


Asterids lamiids gentianales rubiaceae the coffee or madder family
Asterids -- Lamiids:Gentianales: Rubiaceae(The Coffee or Madder Family)

  • Cosmopolitan, most diverse in the tropics and subtropical regions

  • Trees, shrubs lianas or herbs, vines, shrubs; leaves opposite or whorled

  • Diversity: Ca. 12,000 species in ca. 600 genera

  • Flowers: usually bisexual and radial; sepals 4-5, connate; petals 4-5, connate, forming a funnel shaped corolla; stamens usually 4 or 5, adnate to corolla; carpels usually 2 (-5), connate, inferior ovary; fruit a loculicidal or septicidal capsule, berry, drupe, or schizocarp

  • Significant features: interpetiolar stipules (connate stipules)

  • Special uses: Major commodity is coffee (Coffea); anti-malarial drug obtained from the bark of Cinchona (quinine); ipecac (make-U-vomit) comes from Psychotria; gardenias (Gardenia), Pentas, and Ixora provide ornamentals

  • Family not required


Rubiaceae

interpetiolar stipules


Rubiaceae

Pentas

Coffea

arabica


Asterids lamiids solanales solanaceae the potato or nightshade family
Asterids -- Lamiids:Solanales: Solanaceae(The Potato or Nightshade Family)

  • Widespread but most diverse in the neotropics

  • Herbs, shrubs, trees, vines; leaves alternate; often with a ‘solanaceous smell’

  • Diversity: 2,450 species in 91-102 genera

  • Flowers: Sepals 5, connate; petals 5, connate, forming variously tubular corolla, plicate (folded) ; stamens 5, filaments adnate to corolla, sometimes anthers connivant; carpels usually 2 (-5), connate, oriented obliquely to the median plane of the flower; superior ovary; fruit usually a berry (occ. a capsule, schizocarp or nutlet)

  • Significant features: Complex chemistry with solanacoustropanealkaloids (belladonna/atropine, nicotine, capsaicin, etc.); stems with internal phloem

  • Special uses: Many fruits and vegetables (potatoes & tomatoes - Solanum, peppers - Capsicum), tobacco (Nicotiana), some ornamentals (Petunia)

  • Family required; required genus: Solanum


Solanaceae diversity


Solanaceae: Solanum

-herbs or shrubs

-corolla regular, rotate, 5-merous,

deeply lobed

-anthers forming a tube around

the style (connivent), with terminal

openings; filaments short

-fruit a berry, usually 2-locular

-ca. 1,400 species, mostly tropical


Solanaceae

Economic plants and products:

Solanaceae

  • Edibles:

  • Cayenne pepper (Capsicum)

  • Eggplant (Solanum)

  • Green pepper (Capsicum)

  • Red pepper (Capsicum)

  • Potato (Solanum)

  • Tomato (Solanum)


Solanaceae1
Solanaceae

Economic plants and products:

  • Medicinal/toxic plants

  • ~ Alkaloids!

  • Belladona (Atropa)

  • Henbane (Hyoscyamus)

  • Jimson-weed (Datura)

  • Nightshade (Solanum)

  • Mandrake (Mandragora)

  • Tobacco (Nicotiana)



Lamiales

-gland-headed hairs

-diacyticstomates

-oligosaccharides (instead of starch)

-anther anatomy

-protein inclusions in the nuclei of

mesophyll cells

-endosperm with a micropylarhaustorium

-molecular data

-ca. 22 families and 20,000 species


Major families of lamiales
Major Families of Lamiales

  • *Lamiaceae – mints

  • Oleaceae – olives, ashes, lilacs

  • Orobanchaceae – louseworts, beechdrops, Indian paintbrushes

  • Plantaginaceae – snapdragons, vervains, penstemons

  • Scrophulariaceae – mulleins, figworts

*family required for recognition


Asterids lamiids lamiales lamiaceae the mint family labiatae
Asterids -- Lamiids:Lamiales: Lamiaceae(The Mint Family; Labiatae)

  • Cosmopolitan

  • Herbs, shrubs, trees; stems square in herbaceous taxa

  • Diversity: Ca. 6,800 species in 236-238 genera

  • Flowers: Sepals 5, connate, calyx radial or bilateral; petals 5, connate, bilabiate; stamens 4, didynamous to more or less equal; carpels 2, 2 ovules per carpel, connate, styles terminal to an often gynobasic, superior, often deeply 4-lobed ovary; fruit a drupe w/ 1-4 pits, an indehiscent 4-seeded pod, or a schizocarp splitting into 4 nutlets or drupelets

  • Significant features: Opposite leaves (usually); aromatic volatile compounds - mint oils; inflorescences with main axis indeterminate and determinate (cymose) lateral axes, these often congested into pseudowhorls (verticillasters)

  • Special uses: Many herbs: oregano (Origanum), basil (Basilicum), peppermint/spearmint (Mentha), sage (Salvia), thyme (Thymus); teak wood (Tectona); ornamentals (e.g., Salvia, Callicarpa)

  • Family required


Lamiaceae

From

Zomlefer

Lamiaceae

  • Corolla:

    • zygomorphic

    • sympetalous

    • bilabiate

  • Stamens:

    • 4, didynamous

    • epipetalous

  • Ovary:

    • 2-carpellate

    • deeply 4-lobed

    • 4 locules

  • Gynobasic style

  • Schizocarp (4 nutlets)

  • Square stems (herbaceous taxa)

  • Opposite leaves

  • Inflorescence: false whorls (verticils or verticillasters)

Stachys floridana


Lamiaceae

Note verticillate whorls

of flowers at each node

Nepeta

Phytostegia

Ocimum

Rosmarinus

Monarda

Clinopodium


Lamiaceae1
Lamiaceae

Economic plants and products:

  • Condiments & perfumes:

  • Basil (Ocimum)

  • Lavender (Lavandula)

  • Oregano (Origanum)

  • Peppermint (Mentha)

  • Rosemary (Rosmarinus)

  • Sage (Salvia)

  • Spearmint (Mentha)

  • Thyme (Thymus)

Mentha


Lamiaceae2
Lamiaceae

Economic plants and products:

  • Ornamental plants:

  • Beautyberry (Callicarpa)

  • Coleus (Coleus)

  • Salvia (Salvia)


Other interesting lamiales
Other interesting Lamiales

Orobanchaceae

(hemi- and holoparasitic

plants)

Oleaceae

(olive family)

lilac

Conopholis

(parasitic

on oaks)

ash

olives

Castilleja (often parasitizes

grasses and various forbs

Pedicularis (often

parasitizes the heath family)


Other cool Lamiales

Bignoniaceae

Lentibulariaceae –

more carnivorous plants

Gesneriaceae


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