Ba4135 leadership theory application
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BA4135 LEADERSHIP THEORY & APPLICATION. Professor: Pinar Acar. Course Rules. Professionalism & Courtesy Score 5% of letter grade Attend every class Come and leave on time Professional and mature behavior in class No cell phones. Assignments. One project Groups of 2 or individually

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Ba4135 leadership theory application


Professor: Pinar Acar

Course rules

Course Rules

  • Professionalism & Courtesy Score

    • 5% of letter grade

    • Attend every class

    • Come and leave on time

    • Professional and mature behavior in class

    • No cell phones



  • One project

    • Groups of 2 or individually

    • Letter grades will be adjusted according to peer evaluations

  • One simulation

    • individual

  • In class exercises cases

    In-class Exercises & Cases

    • Do advance reading of textbook material

    • Read the assigned cases and prepare the discussion questions

    • Be prepared to make informal presentations to class

    • Use relevant concepts and theories

    Other policies

    Other Policies

    • No make-up exam

    • Denying credit to students that fall short of acceptable performance level

    • Plagiarism

    • Information sheets - Mar4

    • Peer evaluation – last week



    • Defining leadership

    • Identify why leadership is important

    • Discuss leadership effectiveness

    • Discuss if leaders are born or made

    • Discuss managerial roles

    • Identify major approaches to leadership

    Why is leadership important

    Why is leadership important?

    Do leaders make a difference?

    Is leadership only about CEOs of large companies?

    Are leaders born or made?

    Defining leadership

    Defining Leadership

    • Leadership is the influencing process of leaders and followers to achieve shared objectives

    • Leaders – Follower

    • Context: Formal organizations

    • Influencing: The process of communicating ideas, gaining acceptance of them, and motivating others to support and implement them.

    Leadership effectiveness

    Leadership Effectiveness

    • Performance and goal achievement

    • Follower attitudes

    • Smooth internal processes

    • External adaptability

    Approaches to leadership

    Approaches to Leadership

    • Trait approach

    • Behavior approach

    • Power-Influence approach

    • Situational approach

    • Integrative approach

    Chapter 3

    Chapter 3

    The Nature of Managerial Work



    • Understand the typical activity patterns for people in managerial positions

    • Understand the different roles required for managers

    • Understand how managers cope with the demands, constraints, and choices confronting them

    • Understand how managers can make effective use of their time

    Typical activity patterns in managerial work

    Typical Activity Patterns in Managerial Work

    • Pace of work is hectic and unrelenting

    • Content of work is varied and fragmented

    • Many activities are reactive

    • Interactions often involve peers and outsiders

    Typical activity patterns in managerial work cont

    Typical Activity Patterns in Managerial Work (Cont.)

    • Many interactions involve oral communication

    • Decision processes are disorderly and political

    • Most planning is informal and adaptive

    The content of managerial work

    The Content of Managerial Work

    • Job description research

      • Supervising

      • Planning and organizing

      • Decision making

      • Monitoring indicators

      • Controlling

      • Representing

      • Coordinating

      • Consulting

      • Administering

    Mintzberg s managerial roles

    Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles

    Managerial roles

    Managerial Roles

    • Described by Mintzberg.

      • A role is a set of specific tasks a person performs because of the position they hold.

    • There are 3 broad role categories:

      1. Interpersonal

      2. Informational

      3. Decisional

    Interpersonal roles

    Interpersonal Roles

    Roles managers assume to coordinate and interact with employees and provide direction to the organization.

    • Figurehead role:symbolizes the organization and what it is trying to achieve.

    • Leader role:train, counsel, mentor and encourage high employee performance.

    • Liaison role:link and coordinate people inside and outside the organization to help achieve goals.

    Informational roles

    Informational Roles

    Associated with the tasks needed to obtain and transmit information for management of the organization.

    • Monitor role:analyzes information from both the internal and external environment.

    • Disseminator role:manager transmits information to influence attitudes and behavior of employees.

    • Spokesperson role:use of information to positively influence the way people in and out of the organization respond to it.

    Decisional roles

    Decisional Roles

    Associated with the methods managers use to plan strategy and utilize resources to achieve goals.

    • Entrepreneur role:deciding upon new projects or programs to initiate and invest.

    • Disturbance handler role:assume responsibility for handling an unexpected event or crisis.

    • Resource allocator role: assign resources between functions and divisions, set budgets of lower managers.

    • Negotiator role:seeks to negotiate solutions between other managers, unions, customers, or shareholders.

    Role conflicts

    Role Conflicts

    • Role senders

    • Role expectations

    • Conflicting demands

    • Perceptions of role requirements

    Unique role requirements stewart 1967 1976 1982

    Unique Role RequirementsStewart (1967, 1976, 1982)

    • Demands – required duties, activities, and responsibilities

    • Constraints – limiting characteristics of the organization and external environment

    • Choices – activities that a manager may do but is not required to do

    Unique role requirements situational determinants

    Unique Role RequirementsSituational Determinants

    • Pattern of relationships

    • Work patterns

    • Exposure

    Research on situational determinants

    Research on Situational Determinants

    • Level of management

    • Size of organizational unit

    • Lateral interdependence

    • Crisis situation

    • Stage in the organizational life cycle

    Changes in the nature of managerial work

    Changes in the Nature of Managerial Work

    • Economics, politics, and society

    • Globalization

    • New computer and telecommunications technology

    • Structure of organizations

    • Outsourcing and just-in-time inventories

    Time management

    Time Management

    Applications for Managers

    Importance of objectives priorities

    Importance of objectives & priorities



    Intermediate Goals

    Long-Range Goals

    Personal Governing Values

    Productivity Pyramid

    Time mgt matrix

    Time Mgt. Matrix

    Importance (driven by values and goals)

    Not Imp









    Not Urgent

    Neither Imp

    Nor Urgent

    Beating the time wasters

    Beating the time wasters

    • Make a list of all the things you will do tomorrow.

    • Prioritize each item in terms of A, B, and C.

    • Take time to reclassify

    • Make a list of all the time wasters that interfere with your ability to accomplish your long-term objectives.

    Sources of problems in time mgt

    Sources of Problems in Time Mgt.

    Some normal human tendencies

    • Prefer to do things that are interesting and pleasant

    • Prefer to do things that are easy

    • Tend to do things that are urgent

    • Wait until just before a deadline

    • Not aware of how time is used

    • Equate activity with achievement

    Sources of problems in time mgt1

    Sources of Problems in Time Mgt.

    Some basic paradoxes:

    • Busy people can’t find time to plan

    • People who mostly respond to crisis insure they will recur

    • People who can’t delegate to inexperienced subordinates are unlikely to develop them

    • People who find time to do things for others are likely to be asked to do even more things

    • People who tend to leave things on their desk create clutter

    Common time wasters for mgrs

    Common Time Wasters for Mgrs.

    • Drop-in Visitors

    • Telephone interruptions

    • Cluttered office

    • Unessential tasks

    • Unnecessary or over-long meetings

      • Causes

      • Possible remedies

        • Barriers

        • Screening mechanisms

        • Scheduling mechanisms

        • Clarifying role expectations

    Other causes

    Other Causes

    • Plan daily activities

      • Make a to-do list and assign priorities

    • Procrastination

    • Perfectionism

    • Analyzing activity patterns

    Managing stress

    Managing Stress

    • Stress causes a variety of ilnesses.

    • Work-related effects.

    • Stress is within the person.

    • Perceptual and subjective

    • A certain amount of stress is inevitable.

    Sources of stress

    Sources of Stress

    • Individual differences

      • Type A behavior pattern

    • Stressful life situations

    • Work-related stressors

      • Work overload

      • Time pressures

      • Role conflict

      • Office politics



    • Remove yourself

    • Alter the situation

    • Teach yourself to respond differently

      • Clarify your values

      • Stress vaccine

      • Create a personal support system

      • Maintain good physical health

      • Take energy breaks

      • Perform relaxation techniques

    Proven stress reducers

    Proven Stress Reducers

    • Get up 15 min earlier

    • Prepare for the morning the evening before

    • Do nothing which leads you to tell a lie

    • Manage your time effectively

    • Breathe right

    • Make contingency plans

    • Say no.

    • Delegate responsibility

    • Do one thing at a time

    Chapter 7

    Chapter 7

    Managerial Traits and Skills



    • Personality: The pattern of relatively enduring ways in which a person feels, thinks, and behaves.

    • Trait: A specific component of personality that describes particular tendencies a person has to feel, think, and act in certain ways.

    • Values: Convictions that a specific course of action or outcome is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse course of action or outcome.

    • Needs: Physiological or psychological deficiencies that people feel some compulsion to eliminate.

    • Skill: An ability to do something effectively

    The big five model of personality


    The Big Five Model of Personality

    • Surgency: The tendency to experience positive emotional states and feel good about oneself and the world around.

    • Neuroticism: The tendency to experience negative emotional states and view oneself and the world around negatively.

    • Agreeableness: The tendency to get along well with others.

    • Conscientiousness: The extent to which a person is careful, scrupulous, and persevering.

    • Openness to Experience: The extent to which a person is original, has broad interests, and is willing to take risks.

    Ba4135 leadership theory application


    Insert Figure 2.3 here

    Ba4135 leadership theory application


    Insert Figure 2.4 here

    Why executives are derailed

    Why executives are derailed?

    • Used a bullying style viewed as intimidating, insensitive, and abrasive

    • Viewed as being cold, aloof, and arrogant

    • Low emotional stability

    • Were self-centeredand viewed as overly ambitious and thinking of the next job

    • Betrayed personal trust (low integrity)

    • Defensive – resistant to change

    • Had specific performance problems with the business

    • Overmanaged and were unable to delegate or build a team

    Traits of effective leaders

    Traits of Effective Leaders

    • Dominance

    • High energy

    • Self-confidence

    • Integrity

    • Flexibility

    • Self-Confidence

    • Emotional Stability

    • Sensitivity to others

    • Intelligence

    • Internal locus of control

    Need for achievement

    Need for Achievement

    • Doing better than competitors

    • Attaining or surpassing a difficult goal

    • Solving a complex problem

    • Carrying out a challenging assignment successfully

    • Developing a better way to do something

    Need for power

    Need for Power

    • Influencing people to change their attitudes or behavior

    • Controlling people and activities

    • Being in a position of authority over others

    • Gaining control over information and resources

    • Defeating an opponent or enemy

    Need for affiliation

    Need for Affiliation

    • Being liked by many people

    • Being accepted as part of a group or team

    • Working with people who are friendly and cooperative

    • Maintaining harmonious relationship and avoiding conflicts

    • Participating in pleasant social activities

    Leader motive profile theory

    Leader Motive Profile Theory

    • Attempts to explain and predict leadership success based on a person’s nAch, nPow. and nAff. LMP: a high need for power which is socialized, a moderate need for achievement and a lower need for affiliation.

    • Power – socialized power

    • Achievement

    • Affiliation



    • Research on effective leadership behavior

    • Yukl’s taxonomy of leadership behaviors

    • Consolidated products case

    • Air Force Supply Squadron

    • Identifying managerial practices

    • Giving and receiving instructions

    • Giving praise

    Effective leadership behavior

    Effective Leadership Behavior

    Leadership style

    Leadership Style

    • The recurrent pattern of behaviors leaders use as they interact with followers.

    University of iowa

    University of Iowa

    • Autocratic leadership style

    • Democratic leadership style

    • Effective leaders are more democratic

    University of michigan

    University of Michigan

    • Job-centered leadership style

    • Employee-centered leadership style

    • Leadership functions can be carried out by others besides the formal leader.

    • Indicated importance of participative leadership and group supervision

    Ohio state university

    Ohio State University

    • 2 dimensions of leader behavior:

      • Initiating structure

      • Consideration

    • 4 leadership styles:

      • Abdicative leader

      • Directive/autocratic leader

      • Supportive leader

      • Participative leader

    Blake mouton s managerial grid

    Blake & Mouton’s Managerial Grid


    Country Club Management

    Team Management

    Middle-of-the-Road Management

    Concern for People

    Authority-Compliance Management

    Impoverished Management




    Concern for Production



    • Efforts to find one best leadership style was inconclusive

    • There is no one best style that works in every situation

    • Employees are more satisfied with a leader high on consideration/employee-centeredness

    • Identification of the two generic dimensions of leadership behavior

    Yukl s taxonomy managerial practices

    Yukl’s Taxonomy: Managerial Practices

    Early research

    Early Research

    Two broad categories of behavior:

    • Task-oriented behavior

    • Relationship-oriented behavior

    • Both types of behavior are necessary for effective management

    • BUT it was not clear what managers actually do to accomplish task objectives and build effective interpersonal relationships

    Task oriented behaviors

    Task-Oriented Behaviors

    • Plans and defines work to be done

    • Assigns tasks and responsibilities

    • Sets clear work standards

    • Urges task completion

    • Monitors performance results

    Relationship oriented behaviors

    Relationship-Oriented Behaviors

    • Acts warm and supportive toward followers

    • Develops social rapport with followers

    • Respects the feelings of followers

    • Is sensitive to followers’ needs

    • Shows trust in followers

    1 4 managerial practices

    14 Managerial Practices

    • Planning and Organizing

    • Problem Solving

    • Monitoring Operations and Environment

    • Motivating

    • Recognizing

    • Rewarding

    • Informing

    1 4 managerial practices1

    14 Managerial Practices

    • Clarifying Roles and Objectives

    • Supporting

    • Developing

    • Consulting

    • Delegating

    • Team Building and Managing Conflict

    • Networking

    Planning organizing

    Planning & Organizing

    • Decision making about what to do, how to do it, who will do it, and when it will be done.

    • Purpose:

      • ensure efficiency and effective

      • achieve coordination with other parts of orgnization

      • adapting to external environment

    • Many varieties

      • design of organizational unit’s structure

      • design of individual jobs

      • allocation of resources among different activities

      • development of procedures

    Problem solving

    Problem Solving

    • Purpose: To maintain orderly, stable operations at the current level of efficiency.

    • Occurs in response to some immediate disturbance of normal operations

    • Differences from planning:

      • Purpose

      • Reactive

      • Short-term

      • Shorter duration

    • Managers should not become too preoccupied with reacting to day-to-day problems.

    Monitoring operations environment

    Monitoring Operations & Environment

    • Gathering information about

      • Operations of work unit

      • Progress of work

      • Performance of subordinates

      • Success of projects

      • Nature of external environment

    • Forms of monitoring:

      • Walking around

      • Reading reports

      • Meeting with subordinates

      • Inspecting the work

      • Getting reactions from customers

    • Purpose: To maintain the stability of operations and facilitate adjustments to changes in the external environment

    • Closely related to planning and problem solving



    • Communication of relevant information needed by subordinates, peers, or superiors to perform their jobs and providing outsiders information about the organization to foster a favorable image.

    • Forms:

      • Making an explanation in a meeting

      • Calling someone on the phone

      • Writing memos and reports

      • Putting messages on the bulletin board

      • Distributing a newsletter

      • Relaying written materials

    • Purpose: To facilitate the work of others

    Clarifying roles objectives

    Clarifying Roles & Objectives

    • Communication of role expectations to subordinates and others who make an important contribution to work unit operations.

    • Purpose: To guide and orient work activity

    • Forms:

      • Giving commands

      • Making task assignments

      • Explaining rules and procedures

      • Explaining duties

      • Explaining how to do a task

      • Setting standards, goals, and deadlines

      • Supervising

    • Improves subordinate satisfaction and performance where there would otherwise be role ambiguity.

    • Improves performance if involves clear, specific, and realistic performance goals.



    • Use of influence techniques to generate enthusiasm for the work, commitment to task objectives, and complaince with orders and requests

    • Directed at subordinates, peers, superiors, and outsiders

    • Influence tactics:

      • Rational persuasion

      • Inspirational appeals

      • Role modeling

    • Involves use of power

    • Involves use of visioning speeches and symbolic actions

    Recognizing rewarding

    Recognizing & Rewarding

    • Giving of tangible and intagnible rewards for effective performance, significant accomplishment, and helpful assistance.

    • Directed at both subordinates and others

    • Purpose: To influence behavior and to increase satisfaction.

    • Timely recognition and appropriate rewards are the key

    Supporting developing

    Supporting & Developing

    • Showing consideration, acceptance, and concern for the needs and feelings of other people.

    • Developing is a subcategory

    • Purpose: To build and maintain effective interpersonal relationships and to increase job satisfaction

    Consulting delegating

    Consulting & Delegating

    • Encouraging the participation of others in making decisions for which the manager is responsible.

    • Examples:

      • Asking for suggestions

      • Encouraging evaluation of proposals

      • Inviting people to meetings

      • Holding special meetings or hearings

      • Asking subordinates to solve a problem with you

      • Seeking group consensus for decisions

    • Purpose: To improve the quality and acceptance of decisions and to enrich jobs of subordinates.

    Team building managing conflict

    Team Building & Managing Conflict

    • Involves wide variety of behaviors involving development of teamwork and cooperation.

      • Mediating conflicts between others

      • Smoothing over disagreements

      • Encouraging the constructive resolution of conflict

      • Stressing the importance of cooperation

      • Encouraging the sharing of information and ideas

      • Using ceremonies and symbols to develop identification with organizational unit

      • Facilitating social interaction among work unit members

    • Purpose: To maintain effective working relationships and to achieve a cohesive work unit.



    • Involves developing and maintaining contacts with people who are important sources of information and assistance, both within and outside of the organization.

    • Examples:

      • Socializing and informal discussions

      • Attending social and ceremonial events

      • Participating recreational and leisure activities

      • Joining professional associations or social clubs

      • Offering assistance

      • Doing favors that will be appreciated

      • Providing helpful information

    • It is important for managers to develop an extensive contacts with persons in other parts of the organization and with important outsiders.

    Giving instructions

    Giving Instructions

    • Plan the message

    • What is the goal of the message?

    • Who should receive the message?

    • How will you send the message?

    • When will the message be sent?

    • Where will the message be transmitted?

    Giving instructions1

    Giving Instructions

    • Be careful not to talk too fast

    • Develop rapport

    • State your communication objective

    • Transmit your message

    • Check understanding

    • Get a commitment and follow-up

    Giving instructions2

    Giving Instructions

    • Written communication:

      • Set an objective and plan

      • Keep the message short and simple

      • Edit and rewrite where necessary

    Receiving instructions

    Receiving Instructions

    • Pay attention

    • Avoid distractions

    • Stay tuned

    • Do not assume and interrupt

    • Watch nonverbal cues

    • Ask questions

    • Take notes

    • Convey meaning

    • Analyze

    • Check understanding

    G iving praise

    Giving Praise

    • The One-Minute Giving Praise Model (Blanchard & Johnson)

    • Tell the employee exactly what was done correctly.

    • Tell the employee why the behavior is important.

    • Stop for a moment of silence.

    • Encourage repeat performance.

    Chapt e r 4

    Chapter 4

    Participative Leadership

    Types of decision procedures

    Types of Decision Procedures

    • Autocratic Decision

    • Consultation

    • Group Decision

    • Delegation

    Autocratic decision

    Autocratic Decision

    The leader makes a decision alone without asking subordinates for their ideas and suggestions. Then, the leader tells them what was decided, and if necessary, explains the decision or tries to sell it.



    The leader explains the decision problem to subordinates and asks them for their ideas and suggestions. The leader may consult with subordinates individually or together as a group. Then the leader makes the final decision after careful consideration of their input.

    Group decisions

    Group Decisions

    The leader meets with subordinates to discuss the decision problem and reach a decision that is acceptable to everyone or at least to a majority of group members. The leader runs the meeting but has no more influence over the final decision than any other group member.



    • The leader gives an individual or group the authority and responsibility for making a decision.

    Criteria to select appropriate procedure

    Criteria to Select Appropriate Procedure

    • Decision Quality

    • Decision Acceptance

    • Time Needed to Make the Decision

    Decision quality

    Decision Quality

    • High- if the selected alternative is the best one among those available.

    • Is decision quality an important issue?

    • Distribution of relevant information and the extent to which it is possible to bring this info to bear on the decision solution

    • Does the leader possess all the necessary information?

    • Do the subordinates have the necessary information and problem solving skills?

      • Is the problem clear-cut?

    • Does the leader have necessary skills to use consultation and group decision making?

    • Do the subordinates share the leader’s objectives?

    Decision acceptance

    Decision Acceptance

    • The extent to which the persons who must implement the decision believe in it and are motivated to make it work.

    • Is decision acceptance by subordinates important?

      • Does the leader depend on the subordinates to implement the decision?

    • Can acceptance be achieved with an autocratic decision?

      • leader has good understanding of the subordinate preferences

      • subordinates share the objectives of the leader and leader can persuade them

      • the leader has the skills to persuade subordinates.

      • subordinates loyal to the leader and believe in his/her expertise.

    • If decision acceptance is unlikely with an autocratic decision, use a participative decision procedure.

    • Group skills of the leader are important.

    Decision time

    Decision Time

    • Immediate crisis

    • Direct and overhead costs

    • Lost opportunities

    • Reach a decision as quickly as possible without jeopardizing decision quality and acceptance.

    • Decision Time:

      • Autocratic - quickest

      • Consultation - slower

      • Group - slowest

    Ba4135 leadership theory application


    Decision Acceptance

    Not important or

    Assured w/ Autocratic

    Important or Not

    Assured w/ Autocratic

    Decision Quality

    Qualit not Important




    if consistent goals

    Quality important

    Leader has all info



    if inconsistent goals


    if consistent goals

    Quality important

    Leader does not

    have necessary info



    if inconsistent goals

    Chapter 4 cont d

    Chapter 4 (Cont’d)


    To delegate or not to delegate

    To Delegate or Not to Delegate

    Strongly disagree DisagreeNeutral Agree Strongly agree

    12 3 45

    • Most of the time subordinates are to inexperienced to do a job, so I prefer to do it myself._____

    • It takes more time to explain the job than to do the job myself. _____

    • Mistakes by subordinates are too costly, so I don’t assign work to them. _____

    • In my position, I get quicker action by doing a job myself rather than having a subordinate to do it. _____

    • Some things simply should not be delegated. _____

    • Many subordinates are detail specialists and lack the overall knowledge required for a job out of their specialty; thus, they cannot be assigned additional job responsibilities. _____

    • Subordinates are usually too busy to take on any more work. _____

    • Most subordinates just aren’t ready to handle additional responsibilities. _____

    • As a manager, I should be entitled to make my own decisions about my doing detail work rather than administrative work

      TOTAL _____



    • Assignment of new responsibilities to subordinates and additional authority to carry them out.

    Var ieties of delegation

    Varieties of Delegation

    • The variety and magnitude of responsibilities.

    • The amount of discretion or range of choice allowed in deciding how to carry out responsibilities.

    • The authority to take action and implement decisions without prior approval.

    • The frequency and nature of reporting requirements.

    • The flow of performance information.

    Advantages of delegation

    Advantages of delegation

    • Improved decision quality

    • Increased commitment

    • Job enrichment

    • Subordinate development

    • Efficient time management

    Reasons for lack of delegation

    Reasons for lack of delegation

    • Lack of confidence in subordinates

    • Fear of being blamed for subordinates’ mistakes

    • Strong for need power

    • Subordinates have interdependent jobs & Standardization is important

    • Mistrust of subordinates

    What to delegate

    What to Delegate?

    • Tasks that can be done better by subordinates

    • Tasks that are urgent but not high priority

    • Tasks relevant to a subordinate’s career

    • Tasks appropriate for subordinate’s ability

    • Pleasant and unpleasant tasks

    • Tasks not central to manager’s role

    What not to delegate

    What not to delegate

    • Personnel matters

    • Confidential activities

    • Crises

    • Tasks delegated to you personally

    How to delegate

    How to Delegate

    • Specify responsibilities and check for comprehension

    • Provide adequate authority and specify limits of discretion

    • Specify reporting requirements

    • Ensure subordinates acceptance of responsibilities

    • Inform others who need to know

    • Monitor progress

    • Arrange for the subordinate to receive necessary information

    • Provide support and assistance, but avoid reverse delegation

    • Make mistakes a learning experience

    Potential pitfalls of delegation

    Potential Pitfalls of Delegation

    • Misunderstanding the assignment and the manager’s expectations.

    • Feeling that assignment surpasses their ability and being embarrassed by failure.

    • Not being given the authority to complete the assignment or the discretion to choose the manner of completion.

    • Lack of time

    • Assigning a lower priority than the one assigned to it by the manager

    • Lack of motivation

    Delegation model

    Delegation Model

    • Explain the need for delgating and the reasons for selecting the employee.

    • Set objectives that define responsibility, level of authority, and deadline.

    • Develop a plan.

    • Establish control checkpoints and hold employees accountable.

    Chapter 5

    Chapter 5

    The Dyadic Approach to Leadership

    Key definitions

    Key Definitions

    • Dyad: A group of two.

    • Dyadic: The relationship between a leader and each follower in a work unit.

    • Dyadic theory: Approach to leadership that attempts to explain why leaders vary their behavior with different followers.

    • Central idea: A leader will form different relationships with different followers.

    Evolution of the dyadic approach

    Evolution of The Dyadic Approach

    • Vertical Dyadic Linkage Theory (VDL): Leaders’ behaviors and traits have differential impact across followers creating in-groups and out-groups.

    • Leader-Member Exchange Theory (LMX):

      • Extension of VDL

      • Focuses on the quality of the dyadic relationship and its effects on the organizational outcomes over time.

    • Partnership/team building: Leaders can create positive relationships with every subordinate.

    • Systems and Networks: Dyads can be created in all directions across levels and boundaries to build networks that enhance performance.

    Vertical dyadic linkage

    Vertical Dyadic Linkage

    • Emphasizes importance of the dyad formed by the leader with each subordinate.

    • Leaders develop unique working relationships with each member and by so doing, they create in-groups and out-groups.

    • Two kinds of relationships occur among leaders and followers – in- and out-group.

    • How does a leader create in-groups and out-groups?

    • How do these relationships affect the types of power and influence tactics leaders use?

    • By focusing on the relationship between a leader and each follower, VDL research found great variance of leader style and impact within a group of followers.

    In group vs out group

    Followers with strong social ties to their leader in a people-oriented relationship characterized by high mutual trust, exchange, loyalty, and influence.

    Leader uses expert, referent, and reward power.

    Leaders have more influence but can’t use legitimate or coercive power

    Invited to decision making, given additional responsibility, have greater access to the leader.

    Experience mutual influence and collaborative effort

    Leader grants special favors

    Have certain obligations

    Followers with little or no social ties to the leader in a strictly task-oriented relationship characterized by low exchange, lack of trust and loyalty, and top-down influence.

    Leaders use reward, legitimate, and coercive power.

    Need only comply with formal role requirements.

    Such compliance leads to standard benefits for the job and no more.

    Managed according to the employment contract.

    Receive little inspiration, encouragement, or recognition

    Does not experience positive relationships

    In-Group vs. Out-Group

    Leader member exchange theory

    Leader-Member Exchange Theory

    • Extension of VDL

    • Attempts to understand the quality of each dyadic relationship and its effects on organizational outcomes over time.

    • What are the attributes of high-quality relationships?

    • Which influential factors and leader behaviors enhance high quality leader-member exchange relationships?

    • What are the effects of variance in the quality of relationships as revealed through research?

    • To what extent does bias affect the quality of relationships between leaders and followers, and how does it influence their affective, behavioral, and organization-related performance?

    Attributes of high quality lmx relationships

    Attributes of High Quality LMX Relationships

    • Greater levels of leader support and guidance, higher levels of follower satisfaction and performance, wide latitude of discretion for followers, and lower levels of follower turnover.

    • A favorable relationship is more likely when the follower is perceived to be competent and dependable, and the follower’s values and attitudes are similar to those of the leader

    • Impression Management: A follower’s effort to project a favorable image in order to gain an immediate benefit or improve long-term relationships.

      • Ingratiation – Effort to appear supportive, appreciative, and respectful.

      • Self-Promotion – Effort to appear competent and dependable

    Effects of high quality lmx relationships

    Effects of High Quality LMX Relationships

    • Performance ratings

    • Turnover

    • Ratings of organizational climate

    • Job performance

    • Benefits to the in-group member

    • Benefits to the leader

    • Obligations of the leader

    • Obligations of the in-group member

    Partnership building

    Partnership Building

    • Can leaders develop positive relationships with a large number of subordinates?

    • Leaders can develop a unique, beneficial relationship with each subordinate and provide all employees with access to high quality leader-member exchanges.

    Systems and networks

    Systems and Networks

    • Leader dyads can be expanded to larger systems.

    • Leaders should build networks of one-on-one relationships and create positive relationships with as many people as possible.





    • One who subscribes to the teachings of another; an attendant, servant or subordinate; one who emulates …or agrees with another; one who accepts guidance or leadership of another (The American Heritage Dictionary).

    • A follower is a person who is being influenced by a leader.

    • Followership is an interactive role individuals play that complements the leadership role and is equivalent to it in importance for achieving organizational goals.

    • Degree of enthusiasm, cooperation, effort, active participation, task competence, and critical thinking

    Examples of effective followership

    Examples of Effective Followership

    • Demonstrating job knowledge and competence while working without close supervision and completing tasks on time.

    • Demonstrating independent critical thinking by developing one’s own opinions and ideas that show inventiveness and creativity.

    • Showing initiative in taking on responsibilities, participating actively, seeing tasks through to completion, and taking responsibility for one’s own career development.

    • Speaking up frequently to offer information, share viewpoints, or take issue with decisions or actions that may be unethical or ill-advised.

    • Exerting influence on the leader to help the leader avoid costly mistakes.

    • Demonstrating a concern for both performance and supportive friendly atmosphere within the work group.

    Examples of ineffective followership

    Examples of Ineffective Followership

    • Witholding effort

    • Allowing someone else to make the decision for which they are responsible and readily do whatever they are told.

    • Averting their eyes from wrongdoing rather than stopping it.

    • Unwilling to disturb the status quo to do something worthwhile

    • Expecting training and development to be served to them.

    Follower influencing characteristics

    Follower Influencing Characteristics

    • Follower power

      • Expert power

      • Referent power

      • Position power – information, location, access

    • Follower locus of control

    • Follower education and experience

    How to be an effective follower

    How to be an effective follower?

    • Offer support

    • Take initiative

    • Play counseling and coaching roles to the leader, when appropriate

    • Raise issues/concerns when necessary

    • Seek and encourage honest feedback from the leader

    • Clarify your role and expectations

    How to be an effective follower1

    How to be an effective follower?

    • Show appreciation

    • Keep the leader informed

    • Resist inappropriate influence of leader

    Attr ibution theory biases self management

    Attribution Theory, Biases, & Self-Management

    Attribution theory

    Attribution Theory

    • Attribution: how we explain other people’s behavior

    • Is behavior internally or externally determined?

    • External attributions – external cause

      • Sally has low performance because her machine is old

    • Internal attributions – internal cause

      • Bill has low performance because he is lazy

    Ba4135 leadership theory application



    of Cause






    Theory and















    Chapter 5



    • Fundamental Attribution Error: Tendency to explain other people’s behavior with internal attributions and to underemphasize plausible situational causes of the behavior in question

    • Self-Serving Bias: The tendency to deny personal responsibility for poor performance but to accept personal responsibility for high performance when explaining our own behavior

    • The type of exchange relationship influences the leader’s interpretation of the follower’s behavior

    Self management


    • A set of strategies a person uses to influence and improve her behavior.

    • See table 5-4 for a list of self-management strategies.

    • Superleadership: The process of developing self-leadership in others.

    Some suggestions for effective leader feedback

    Some Suggestions for Effective Leader Feedback

    • Take a supportive, problem solving approach

    • Stay calm and professional

    • Avoid a rush to judgment

    • State the deficiency in specific terms

    • Explain the negative impact of ineffective behavior

    • Help the follower identify reasons for poor performance and suggest remedies for change

    • Reach agreement on specific action plans

    • Summarize the discussion and verify agreement

    Monitoring and reviewing progress

    Monitoring and Reviewing Progress

    Monitoring reviewing progress

    Monitoring & Reviewing Progress

    • Involve gathering information about:

    • The progress of the work

    • The success of projects or programs

    • The performance of individual subordinates

    • The quality of products or services

    • The concerns of customers

    • Changes in the external environment

    When monitoring is insufficient

    When monitoring is insufficient:

    • Failure to detect problems before they become serious

      • Declining quality

      • Low productivity

      • Employee dissatisfaction

      • Customer dissatisfaction

      • Projects behind schedules

      • Customer preferences

      • New technologies

    When monitoring is insufficient1

    When monitoring is insufficient:

    • Unable to provide recognition

    • Unable to identify subordinates who need help

    • Unable to evaluate performance of subordinates

    • Unable to determine a sound basis to allocate rewards

    Requirements for effective monitoring

    Requirements for Effective Monitoring

    • Network of contacts

    • Organizational systems such as Information systems and control systems

    • Formal goal setting programs such as MBO

    • Good relations with subordinates

    Monitoring is especially important if

    Monitoring is especially important if

    • Subordinates are inexperienced and unskilled

    • Mistakes and accidents would be expensive

    • Task is difficult and complex

    • Interdependence is high

    • Disruptions are likely

    Forms of monitoring

    Forms of Monitoring

    • Observation

    • Reading reports

    • Inspecting quality of product samples

    • Surveying customer/employees

    • Holding meetings – Progress review meetings

    Progress review meetings

    Progress Review Meetings

    • Facilitate correction of performance problems

    • Help a managers to determine if a a subordinate needs help

    • Improve manager-subordinate communication

    • Help assess if goals and plans are realistic

    Progress review meetings1

    Progress Review Meetings

    • Timing of meetings

    • Preparation for meetings

    • Identifying reasons for unsatisfactory progress

      • Situational causes

      • Deficiencies in subordinate skill or motivation

    Procedures for progress review meetings

    Procedures for Progress Review Meetings

    • Review purpose and show enthusiasm

    • Begin with a high priority goal

    • Ask the subordinate to summarize progress on the goal

    • Explore any disagreements about progress

    • Explore reasons why progress is not on target

    • Consider potential problems that could delay progress

    • Ask the subordinate to suggest corrective actions

    • Record level of progress and agreements on action steps

    • Summarize the discussion

    Chapter 6


    Power & Influence

    A model of power and influence

    A Model of Power and Influence








    Outcomes of influence attempts

    Outcomes of Influence Attempts

    • Commitment: Most successful; the person is enthusiastic about carrying out the request and makes a maximum effort.

    • Compliance: Partially successful; the person is apathetic about carrying out the request and makes only a minimal effort.

    • Resistance: Unsuccessful; the person is opposed to carrying out the request and tries to avoid doing it.

    Influence processes

    Influence Processes

    • Instrumental compliance: Carries out the requested action to obtain a tangible reward or avoid a punishment controlled by the agent.

    • Internalization: Carries out the requested action because it appears to be intrinsically desirable and correct in relation to his values, beliefs, and self image.

    • Personal identification: Imitates the agent’s behavior or adopts the same attitudes to please the agent and to be like the agent.



    • The potential of one person (agent) to exert influence on another person (target).

    • Stems from the dependency of the target person on the agent person

    • Sources of Power

      • Personal

      • Position

    • Determines whether influence attempts will be successful.

    Position power

    Position Power

    • Legitimate Power: The lawful right to make a decision and expect compliance.

    • Reward Power: The perception that the manager controls important rewards

    • Coercive Power: Power to punish for noncompliance.

    • Information Power: Control over access to and distribution of information.

    • Ecological Power: Control over the physical environment, technology, and organization of work.

    Personal power

    Personal Power

    • Expert Power: Power stemming from specialized knowledge and skills.

    • Referent Power: Desire of others to please a manager toward whom they have a strong feelings of affection, admiration, and loyalty.

    Influence skills

    Influence Skills

    • Diagnostic skills:

      • E.g. empathy, insight, social sensitivity

      • Help select an appropriate influence tactic

      • Analyze the situation and understand the motives and values of the target persons

    • Execution skills:

      • Persuasiveness, decisiveness, bargaining ability, and acting ability

    Influence tactics

    Influence Tactics

    • Legitimating Tactic

    • Rational Persuasion

    • Exchange Tactic

    • Personal Appeals

    • Inspirational Appeal

    • Consultation

    • Pressure Tactic

    • Coalition Tactic

    Legitimating tactics

    Legitimating Tactics

    • Request based on legitimate power

    • Forms of behavior that establish the legitimacy of a request:

      • Providing evidence of prior precedent

      • Showing consistency with organizational policies

      • Showing consistency with the duties and responsibilities of the person’s position

      • Indicating that the request endorsed by higher management

    • Usually results in minimal compliance

    Rational persuasion

    Rational Persuasion

    • Involves use of expertise to present logical arguments, backed by factual evidence

    • Appropriate when target person has compatible goals

      • Identify target person’s goals first

    • Requires technical knowledge, being recognized as credible and trustworthy, and skills in persuasive speaking

    Inspirational appeal

    Inspirational Appeal

    • Attempt to arouse emotions as the mechanisms for motivating commitment

    • Involves using target person’s values and ideals to motivate him to do a task

    • Requires insight into the values, hopes, and fears of the target person/s and communication skills

    • Research on transformational leaders



    • Attempt to increase the motivation of a person by allowing him to participate in making the decision.

    • Appropriate when the target has compatible goals

    Exchange tactics

    Exchange Tactics

    • Involves the explicit or implicit offer of rewards for doing what is requested

    • Appropriate when the target is indifferent or reluctant

    • First identify which of the rewards controlled by you are desired by the target

    • It may not be clear what rewards you control

    • Maintain credibility

    • Use incentive sparingly

    Personal appeals

    Personal Appeals

    • Involves asking s.o. to do a favor based on friendship or loyalty

    • Requires considerable referent power and the request should be perceived as important to the manager

    • Use sparingly

    • Make an effort to maintain strong personal relationships



    • Involves behavior that makes s.o. feel better about you

    • When sincere, strengthen friendship and provide a strong basis for influence

    Pressure tactics

    Pressure tactics

    • Include coercion, intimidation, and pushy behavior

    • Compliance is greatest if threat is seen credible

    • Use as last resort – serious side effects

    Coalition tactics

    Coalition Tactics

    • Indirect influence attempt which involves getting the support of other people

    • Coalition partners can be active or passive

    • Can be used in combination with other tactics

    New tactics

    New Tactics

    • Collaboration: Involves reducing the difficulty or costs of carrying out a request

    • Apprising: Involves explaining why a request is likely to benefit the target

    Chapter 8

    Chapter 8

    Contingency Theories

    Ba4135 leadership theory application

    Contingency Theories“When and under what circumstances is a particular leadership style preferable to others?”

    • There is no one best way to lead

    • Leadership effectiveness = f(leader, situation)

    • Leaders are most effective when they make their behavior contingent upon situational forces.

    • Goal: To understand how different situations affect leadership success.

    Contingency theories

    Contingency Theories

    Fielder’s Contingency Theory

    Path-Goal Theory

    Substitutes for Leadership

    Cognitive Resources Theory

    Multiple Linkage Model

    Fiedler s contingency theory

    Fiedler's Contingency Theory

    • Assumption: Good leadership depends on the match between leadership style and situational demands.

    • Leadership style - Least-Preferred Coworker Scale

    • Relationship-motivated leader is concerned with people


    • Task-motivated leader is primarily motivated by task accomplishment.

    • Leadership style is part of one’s personality.

    • Leadership Success <= Putting the styles to work in situations for which they are good fits.

    Fiedler s contingency theory1

    Fiedler’s Contingency Theory

    1. Understanding the leadership style:

    • Determined by Least-Preferred Coworker (LPC) Scale.

    • High LPC leader: Tendency to a relationship-oriented leadership style

    • Low LPC leader: Tendency to a task-oriented leadership style.

      2. Diagnosing the leadership situation: to identify the extent of control a situation allows a leader:

    • Quality of leader-member relations (good-poor)

    • Degree of task structure (high-low)

    • Amount of position power (strong-weak)

    Fiedler s contingency theory2

    Fiedler’s Contingency Theory

    3. Matching the leadership style and the situation

    • Neither the task-oriented nor the relationship-oriented style is effective all the time.

    • A task-oriented leadership will be most successful in either very favorable or very unfavorable situations.

    • A relationship-oriented leadership will be most successful in situations of moderate control

    Fiedler s contingency model



























    Kinds of







    Relationship-oriented managers most effective in IV, V, VI, VII.

    Task-oriented managers most effective in I, II, III or VIII.

    Fiedler’s Contingency Model



    • Improve leader-member relations

    • Initiate structure

    • Exercise more position power

    Path goal theory

    Path-Goal Theory

    • An effective leader clarifies paths through which subordinates can achieve goals and increases the rewards they value.

    • Increasing Rewards: The leader talks with subordinates to learn which rewards are important to them. Then, aligns these rewards with task accomplishment.

    • Path Clarification: The leader helps subordinates learn the behaviors that lead to task accomplishment and rewards.

    Ba4135 leadership theory application

    Path Clarification

    Increase Rewards

    Leader defines what

    follower must to do

    attain work outcomes

    Leader learns

    follower’s needs

    Leader matches follower’s

    needs to rewards if work

    outcomes are accomplished

    Leader clarifies

    follower’s work role

    Follower has increased

    knowledge and confidence

    to accomplish outcome

    Leader increases value of

    work outcomes for follower

    Follower displays increased

    effort and motivation

    Organizational work

    outcomes are accomplished

    Path goal theory1

    Path-Goal Theory

    • Four leadership Styles:

    • Directive leadership: Giving directions, scheduling their work, establishing performance standards.

    • Supportive leadership: Making work pleasant, being friendly, showing concern.

    • Achievement-oriented leadership: Setting challenging goals, displaying confidence, expecting high levels of performance from subordinates.

    • Participative leadership: Involving subordinates in decision making.

    • Types of behavior that every leader can adopt depending on the situation.

    Ba4135 leadership theory application

    Path-Goal Theory

    • Choice depends on work environment –task structure, formal authority and work group- and subordinates’ personal characteristics -authoritarianism, locus of control, ability.

    • Managerial Implications:

      • Leaders should switch their behavior to match the situation.

      • Managers must use the leadership style that complements the needs of the situation.

    • Common Managerial Situations:

    • job assignments are unclear - Directive Leadership

    • worker self-confidence is low - Supportive Leadership

    • performance incentives are poor - Participative Leadership

    • task challenge is insufficient - Achievement-Oriented Leadership

    Substitutes for leadership

    Substitutes for Leadership

    Aspects of the work setting and the people involved that can reduce the need of a leader’s personal involvement or neutralize the effect of a leader.

    • Organizational Variables

    • Group cohesiveness

    • Formalization

    • Task characteristics

    • Highly structured task

    • Automatic feedback

    • Intrinsic satisfaction

    Substitutes for leadership1

    Substitutes for Leadership

    • Subordinate characteristics

    • Professionalism

    • Training/experience

    The mult iple linkage model

    The Multiple Linkage Model

    • Four types of variables:

    • Leader behavior

    • Intervening variables

    • Criterion variables

    • Situational variables

    • Focuses on the performance of a work group

    Intervening variables

    Intervening Variables

    • Task commitment

    • Ability and role clarity

    • Organization of the work

    • Cooperation and mutual trust

    • Resources and support

    • External coordination

    Key ideas

    Key Ideas

    • Intervening variables determine group performance.

    • Group leader can increase/decrease group effectiveness through influencing intervening variables.

    • Aspects of the situation influence the current level intervening variables independent of leader behavior.

    • Leaders can improve group performance by correcting any deficiencies in the intervening variables.

    • Leaders should make the conditions more favorable over the long-run.

    Situational variables

    Situational Variables

    • Formal reward system

    • Intrinsically motivating job

    • Prior training and experience of subordinates

    • Task structure

    • Type of technology

    • Competitive strategy

    • Size of the group

    • Group homogeneity

    • Formal budget systems

    • Inventory systems

    • Organization structure

    Leader actions

    Leader Actions

    • Offer special incentives

    • Set specific goals

    • Reorganize activities

    • Build and emphasize common group identity

    • Obtain needed resources

    • Improve external coordination

    Situational variables neutralizers

    Situational Variables - Neutralizers

    • Leader’s position power

    • Organizational policies

    • Technology

    • Legal-contractual restrictions

    Cogn itive resources theory

    Cognitive Resources Theory

    • Do situations arise in which leader’s intelligence and other cognitive abilities can be a disadvantage?

    • How does stress impact a leader’s effectiveness?

    • Two leader characteristics: intelligence and experience

    • Contingency variable: stress

    • Propositions:

    • Leader’s intelligence can contribute positively to group performance when the leader is directive.

    • Stress moderates the relationship between intelligence and performance:

      • When the situation is not stressful, leader’s intelligence is an asset .

      • In times of high stress leader’s intelligence can either detract from or have no impact on group performance.

    • A leader’s experience is positively related to group performance in high-stress situations but not in low-stress situations.

    • Implication: The role of stress in leadership situations must be considered.

    Chapter 9

    Chapter 9

    Charismatic and Transformational Leadership



    • Look at different aspects of leaders

    • Highlight the importance of followers’ emotions

    • Focus on the leaders at top levels of organizations



    • Divine gift of grace

    • Max Weber => a type of influence based on exceptional qualities of an individual person

      • heroic acts

      • advocating revolutionary mission

    • Today =>endowment of exceptional qualities and high self-esteem and referent power from followers.

    • Definition: A distinct social relationship between the leader and follower in which the leader presents a revolutionary idea or ideal which goes beyond the immediate or the reasonable; while the followers accept this course of action not because of its rational likelihood of success but because of an effective belief in the extraordinary qualities of the leader.

    Locus of charisma

    Locus of Charisma

    • What causes a leader to be perceived as charismatic?

    • Situation

    • Leader’s qualities

    • Interaction of both

    Personal meaning

    Personal Meaning

    • Self-belief

    • Legacy

    • Selflessness

    • Cultural heritage and traditions

    • Political and social causes

    • Faith and spirituality

    • Values

    • Personal interests

    Behavioral components

    Behavioral Components

    • The discrepancy between the status quo and future vision

    • Vision articulation

    • Role modeling

    • Use of unconventional strategies

    • A realistic assessment of resources and constraints

    Charismatic leadership

    Charismatic Leadership

    • An attribution made by followers about leaders who exhibit certain personal traits, abilities, and behaviors and who have unusually strong influence on followers’ emotions, values, beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors.

    Ba4135 leadership theory application

    Hi self-esteem



    Of work

    Hi emotional

    Involvement &


    Hi trust, esteem,


    Loyalty to leader

    Effects on


    Hi satisfaction





    Hi individual

    And group




    Ba4135 leadership theory application

    Assertive, dynamic,

    outgoing, and




    Rhetorical skills



    Key Skills,


    Inspire trust


    Referent &



    Hi risk


    Need for




    • Personal identification

    • Internalization

    • Social identification

    • Social contagion

    Consequences of charisma

    Consequences of Charisma

    • Negative charismatics:

      • Personalized power orientation

      • Emphasize personal identification

      • Ideology used to serve personal objectives

      • Dominate followers

      • Centralized authority

      • Information controlled

    • Positive charismatics

      • Socialized power orientation

      • Emphasize internalization of values

      • Devotion to ideology emphasized

      • Authority delegated

      • Information shared

      • participation encouraged

    • Negative consequences – see Table 9-2

    Other topics

    Other Topics

    • Close and Distant Charisma

    • Routinization of charisma

      • Transfer charisma to successor

      • Create and administrative structure

      • Embed it in the culture

    Transformational leadership

    Transformational leadership

    • Process of appealing to moral values of followers in an attempt to raise their consciousness about ethical issues and to mobilize their energy and resources to reform institutions

    Transformational leadership1

    Transformational Leadership

    • Defining characteristics

      • Followers feel trust, admiration, loyalty, and respect

      • Followers do more than they initially expected

      • Followers are transformed

    • Leader behavior

      • Make followers aware of the importance of task outcomes

      • Make followers go beyond their self-interest for the sake of the organization

      • Activate followers’ higher order needs

      • Bass’ typology – idealized influence, individualized consideration, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation

    • Influence processes

      • Internalization (primary)

      • Personal identification

        Facilitating Conditions - Any situation

    Transformational leader behaviors

    Transformational Leader Behaviors

    • Creation and articulation of vision

    • Role modeling

    • Building teamwork and encouraging acceptance of group goals

    • High performance expectations

    • Personalized leader-member exchange

    • Empowerment

    Transformational leader characteristics

    Transformational Leader Characteristics

    • See themselves as change agents

    • Are visionaries

    • Are risk takers

    • Capable of articulating a set of values

    • Possess exceptional cognitive skills

    • Show sensitivity to needs of others

    • Are flexible and open to learn form experience

    Differences between transformational and charismatic leadership

    Differences between Transformational and Charismatic Leadership

    • Charismatics:

      • perceived as extraordinary,

      • unconventional vision,

      • unusual strategies and behavior,

      • personal identification and impression management,

      • personal risk taking and self-sacrifice,

      • rare and emerge under certain conditions

      • hands on style and followers are dependent on them,

    • Transformational leaders:

      • inspiring, empowering, and developing followers

      • emphasize internalization more than personal identification

      • create followers less dependent on the leader

      • universally relevant for all types of situations

    Transactional leadership

    Transactional Leadership

    • A leader who clarifies subordinates’ role and task requirements, initiates structure, provides rewards, and displays consideration for subordinates.

    • Appeals to self-interest

    Theories of charismatic leadership

    Theories of Charismatic Leadership

    • Attribution Theory of Charismatic Leadership

    • Self-Concept Theory of Charismatic Leadership

    • Psychodynamic processes

    • Social Contagion

    • Close and distant charisma

    • Routinization of charisma

    Ba4135 leadership theory application

    Attribution Theory of Charismatic Leadership

    • Charisma is an attributional phenomenon

      • Leader behaviors and skills

      • Aspects of the situation

    • Leader behavior and skills:

      • Advocate a vision that is different from the status quo

      • Act in unconventional ways

      • Make self-sacrifices, take personal risks and incur high costs

      • Appear confident

      • Use visioning and persuasive appeals

      • Skills and expertise to assess the environment

    Attribution theory of charismatic leadership

    Attribution Theory of Charismatic Leadership

    • Influence Processes

      • Personal identification: desire to please and imitate the leader

      • Internalization: adopting the leader’s ideals and goals and become inspired to attain them.

    • Facilitating Condition

      • Follower disenchantment

    Self concept theory of charismatic leadership

    Self-Concept Theory of Charismatic Leadership

    • Explains how charismatic leaders behave, their traits and skills, and the conditions in which they are likely to emerge

    • Defining charisma:

      • Has profound and unusual effects on followers

      • Beliefs are perceived as correct

      • Followers willingly obey

      • Follower feel affection toward the leader

      • Followers emotionally involved in the mission

      • Followers set high performance goals

      • Followers believe they can contribute to organizational goals

    • Traits:

      • Strong conviction in beliefs

      • High self-confidence

      • High need for power

    Self concept theory of charismatic leadership1

    Self-Concept Theory of Charismatic Leadership

    • Behaviors:

      • Articulate an appealing vision

      • Use strong, expressive forms of communication

      • Take personal risks and make self-sacrifices

      • Communicate high expectations

      • Express confidence

      • Role model

      • Manage impressions

      • Build identification with the group

      • Empower followers

    • Influence Processes

      • Social identification: Followers define themselves in terms of membership in a group or organization

      • Internalization

      • Augmenting individual and collective self-efficacy

      • Personal identification

    Self concept theory of charismatic leadership2

    Self-Concept Theory of Charismatic Leadership

    • Facilitating Condition:

      • Leader’s vision congruent with follower values

      • Task roles can be defined ideologically

      • Trouble, panic, anxiety

    Psychodynamic processes

    Psychodynamic Processes

    • Aim to explain the unusual influence of some charismatic leaders

    • Make use of psychodynamic processes such as regression, transference, and projection

    Social contagion

    Social Contagion

    • Aim to explain how charismatic attributions are made by people who do not directly interact with the leader

    • Focuses on influence processes that occur among the followers

    • Social contagion: Charismatic leader can activate heroic image of followers and cause followers to behave with unusual devotion to a great cause. When others observe this, their heroic self-image may also be activated replicating observed behavior. Extreme devotion to leader and cause becomes contagious and spreads

    Ba4135 leadership theory application


    own image

    In followers’


    Advocates moral

    Mission &Vision




    Behaviors of



    Takes risks

    Role models


    Uses frame

    Alignment to



    Ba4135 leadership theory application

    Task Characteristics

    Have moral element

    May have implications

    On how people do

    things and think

    Follower Characteristics

    Distress, anxiety, uncertainty,





    Leader Characteristics

    High status, rank, experience

    Chapter 11

    Chapter 11

    Leading Teams & Decision Making Groups



    • Leadership roles in different types of teams

    • Team building

    • Leading decision making groups

    • Case: Building maintenance

    Types of teams

    Types of Teams

    • Functional Teams

    • Cross-Functional Teams

    • Self-Managed Teams

    • Self-Defining Teams

    • Executive Teams

    • Virtual Teams

    Functional teams

    Functional Teams

    • Long duration

    • Stable membership

    • Appointed leader with considerable authority

    • Effective leadership involves influencing inputs, processes, and outcomes

      • Task commitment

      • Member skills and role clarity

      • Performance strategies

      • Trust and cooperation

      • Resources and political support

      • External coordination and adaptation

    Cross functional teams

    Cross-Functional Teams

    • Consist of representatives from various functional areas.

    • May include outsiders

    • Ex. New product development, new project development

    • Lateral tools

    • Usually temporary

    • Dual responsibility of team members

    Cross functional teams1

    Cross-Functional Teams

    • Benefits

    • Drawbacks

    • More effective when they have an appointed leader.

    • Leader Skills:

      • Technical skills

      • Administrative skills

      • Interpersonal skills

      • Cognitive skills

      • Political skills

    • Leadership behaviors:

      • Envisioning

      • Organizing

      • Social integrating

      • External spanning

    Self managed work teams

    Self-Managed Work Teams

    • Members from the same function

    • Authority of the team leader/manager is shared by team members

    • Sometimes they may produce the entire product.

    • Members usually rotate tasks

    • Two kinds of leadership roles:

      • Internal leadership

        • Shared or rotated

        • Decisions related to performing the task, personnel decisions, purchasing some materials, etc.

      • External leadership

    Leading decision groups

    Leading Decision Groups

    • Potential advantages of group decisions

    • Potential disadvantages of group decisions

    Presentation of the problem

    Presentation of the Problem

    • Be brief

    • Share essential information

    • Use situational terms

      • “How can we get people to stop their excessive use of xerox machines?”

      • “How can we reduce duplicating costs?”

    • Avoid suggesting causes or solutions

      • “How can we use incentives to increase employee productivity?”

      • “How can we increase employee productivity?”

    • Invoke mutual interests

      • “How can we hold down production costs?”

      • “How can we protect our jobs by keeping production costs below those of competitors?”

    • Specify one primary objective

      • “How can we reduce errors and delays in deliveries to customers?”

    Problem diagnosis

    Problem Diagnosis

    • Confusing facts with opinions or assumptions

    • Confusing symptoms with causes

    • Looking for scapegoats to blame

    • Proposing solutions before the problem is clearly understood

    • Encourage alternative problem statements

    • Evaluate alternative problem statements

    Solution generation

    Solution Generation

    • Focus on the present

    • Encourage novel solutions

    • Separate idea generation and evaluation (brainstorming, nominal group technique)

    Solution evaluation

    Solution Evaluation

    • Common Problems:

      • Incomplete participation

      • Groupthink

      • Hasty decisions

    • Allow ample time to evaluate consequences

    • Facilitate participation

    • Encourage positive restatement and idea building

    • List advantages and disadvantages

    • Identify costs and benefits

    • Assign devil’s advocates

    Solution choice

    Solution Choice

    • Major issue: avoiding polarization

    • Discourage polarization

    • Encourage an integrative solution

    • Encourage experimentation

    • Hold a second chance meeting

    • Equalize participation

    • Encourage consensus

    • Clarify responsibilities for implementation

    Characteristics of a team

    Characteristics of a Team

    • Committed to a common purpose or a goal

    • Members have clear roles and responsibilities that are interdependent

    • Has communication structure that allows sharing of information

    • Members have a sense of mutual accountability

    Roles of team members

    Roles of Team Members

    • Role

    • Role ambiguity: The members are uncertain about their roles.

    • Role overload/underload: Too much/little is expected from members.

    • Role conflict: Member is unable to comply with his/her role.

      • Conflicting expectations from a supervisor

      • Conflicting expectations from different people.

      • One’s values and needs conflict with role expectations.

      • Expectations of two or more roles conflict.

    Roles of team members1

    Roles of Team Members

    • Task roles

    • Group maintenance roles

    • Self-oriented roles

    Formal approaches to team building

    Formal Approaches to Team Building

    • Examine three questions:

      • What do we do well?

      • What areas need improvement?

      • What are the barriers to improvement?

    • Role analysis technique

    • Role negotiation

    • Responsibility charting

    Informal approaches to team building

    Informal Approaches to Team Building

    • Trust

    • Common goals

    • Open honest communication

    • Creating opportunities for group interaction

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