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Internet Search Strategies and Plagiarism. Internet Search Strategies. Part I. Three Categories of Searching “Tools”. General directories Search engines Specialized directories Examples News headings, weather, stock market information, etc. General Directories.

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Three categories of searching tools
Three Categories of Searching “Tools”

  • General directories

  • Search engines

  • Specialized directories

    • Examples

    • News headings, weather, stock market information, etc.


General directories
General Directories

  • Are web sites that provide a large collection of links arranged in categories. Content is hand picked.

  • Sites are selective and meet specific criteria.

  • Sites are arranged by categories

    • Databases are smaller than a web search engine

    • Good for general rather that specific questions

    • Generally pay a fee to be listed


Examples
Examples . . .

  • Yahoo! Directory

  • Open Directory Project

    (www.dmoz.org)

    3. Librarians’ Internet Index

    (lii.org)

  • Internet Public Library

    (ipl.org)


Search engines
Search Engines

  • Use a search engine if your search contains three or more concepts.

  • If you suspect very little is written on your topic.

  • If your search needs to be exhaustive.

  • Web search engines allow you to use more sophisticated techniques (advance searching).

  • No human selectivity is involved in what is in the database, as the searcher you provide the selectivity in furthering your search.


Specialized directories
Specialized Directories

  • Collection of selected Internet resources (links).

  • Gives more sites on a specific topic.

  • Provide categories you can browse and also has a search feature.

  • Provide expertise in using web resources in an area of interest.


Examples of specialized directories
Examples of Specialized Directories

REFERENCE TOOLS

Refdesk

refdesk.com

The Public Library Reference Ready Reference

www.ipl.org/div/subject/browse/ref00.00.00

ACADEMIC

BUBL LINK

bubl.ac.uk/link

Intute

www.intute.ac.uk

Hock, Randolph. The Extreme Searcher’s Internet Handbook, p. 51-53.


More specialized directories
More Specialized Directories

  • Project Gutenberg

    www.gutenberg.org

  • Library of Congress Gateway to Library Catalogs

    lcweb.loc.gov/z3950/gateway.html

Links to Books and Library Catalogs Online

Hock, Randolph. The Extreme Searcher’s Internet Handbook, p. 51-53.


General strategies
General Strategies—

  • There is no right or wrong way to search the internet!

  • Answer three basic questions . . .

“1. Exactly what is my question?

2. What is the most appropriate tool to start with?

3. What search strategy should I start with?”

Hock, Randolph. The Extreme Searcher’s Internet Handbook, p. 12.


Organize your search by concepts
Organize your Search by Concepts

  • Think in terms of concepts (and alternate terms).

  • For example . . . Use grammatical variations, (electricity, electrical); synonyms; or perhaps related terms.

  • Keep the search simple.

Hock, Randolph. The Extreme Searcher’s Internet Handbook, p. 13.


Boolean logic is used for searching computer databases

AND

OR

NOT

( ) Parentheses and quotes

+ Plus sign

* Asterisk

Boolean Logic is used for Searching Computer Databases

BOOLEAN OPERATORS

Use these operators between and around the keywords in your searches.


Examples1
Examples . . .

  • AND

    (Narrows search and the search engine looks for information that contains all of your keywords even if they are not next to each other)

    • Industrial AND pollution

    • Biology AND molecular

Mautner, Christopher. Educator’s Internet Companion, p. 140.


Examples2
Examples . . .

  • OR

    • College OR university

      • (will return results with either word)

    • OR logic collates the results to retrieve all the unique records containing one term, the other term or both.

http://internettutorials.net.boolean.asp.


Examples3
Examples . . .

  • NOT

    • Media NOT television

    • Returns results with websites having the word Media and NOT television.

    • Only one of the terms will be present.

    • Not logic excludes records from search results.

http://internettutorials.net.boolean.asp.


Parentheses and quotes
Parentheses and Quotes

“Putting parentheses or quotes around a set of keywords will force the engine to match the entire word or phrase as it stands. When you use a + after a phrase, followed immediately by a keyword, the search gets even more specific.”

Mautner, Christopher. Educator’s Internet Companion, p. 140.


Example using quotations and the sign
Example . . .Using Quotations and the + Sign

“carpal tunnel syndrome” +treatment

Mautner, Christopher. Educator’s Internet Companion, p. 140.


Wildcard searching using the asterisk
Wildcard Searching Using the Asterisk *

Place an asterisk at the end of a word and the search engine will look for every word on the site that begins with the word or letters. This is useful if you are unsure of the spelling of keywords and can be used for also searching a root word.

Example: Bio*

Results will include biology or

biography.

Mautner, Christopher. Educators Internet Companion, p. 140.


Did you know
Did You Know . . .

Most large search engines apply AND to your search even if you do not specify it and enter two or more search words.

Hock, Randolph. The Extreme Searcher’s Internet Handbook, page 70.


Search results
Search Results

Different search engines may interpret or handle the Boolean Search operators differently. If you get unexpected results, check the FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) link to see how the search engine handles the operators.

Mautner, Christopher. Educator’s Internet Companion, p. 141.


Other searching tips
Other Searching Tips

  • Set the search tool to display the smallest number of results (10).

  • Use at least three search engines to do a preliminary search.

  • Search using lower case letters.

  • Use near. Example Albert near Einstein.

Mautner, Christopher. Educator’s Internet Companion, p. 141.


Benefits of using search engines
Benefits of Using Search Engines

  • Larger, billions of records in their databases

  • No human selectivity of data

  • Are designed for searching, not browsing

  • A “search engine” is actually a service that “facilitates” searching


Search engine leaders
Search Engine Leaders

  • Google

  • Yahoo Search

  • Ask.com


Alternative approaches
Alternative Approaches

  • Reword the search

  • Switch to a different search engine

  • Go straight to a known, reliable web site

Experts use a combination of skills in search techniques with knowledge of top sources in multiple subject areas.


Plagiarism

Plagiarism

Part II


What is plagiarism
What is Plagiarism?

  • Here is a definition from

  • www.dictionary.com:

  • pla⋅gia⋅rism

  • Spelled Pronunciation [pley-juh-riz-uhm, -jee-uh-riz-]–noun

  • The unauthorized use or close imitation of the language and thoughts of another author and the representation of them as one's own original work.

  • Something used and represented in this manner.


Plagiarism1
Plagiarism . . .

“Failing to cite quotations and

borrowed ideas.

Failing to enclose borrowed language in quotation marks.

Failing to put summaries and paraphrases in your own words.”

Hacker, Diana. The Bedford Handbook, New York: RR Donnelley and Sons Company, 2002 p. 576.


Citing quotations and borrowed ideas
Citing Quotations and Borrowed Ideas . . .

Cite direct quotations

and

Cite borrowed ideas (paraphrases of sentences, summaries of paragraphs, statistics, diagrams etc.)

Hacker, Diana. The Bedford Handbook, New York: RR Donnelley and Sons Company, 2002 p. 577.


Plagiarism2
Plagiarism?

  • Words, ideas, images and sounds need to be documented and given credit if they are not your own.

  • Failure to do so may lead to charges of plagiarism whether intentional or unintentional.

  • Many schools have academic policies that point out the consequences of plagiarizing material.

Source: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/589/01/.


Common knowledge
Common Knowledge

  • This is information that can be found in a number of general sources because it is commonly known.

  • If information is only found in one or two sources, or is controversial, you should cite it.

  • If in doubt, ask someone who has expertise.

  • WHEN IN DOUBT, CITE THE SOURCE!

Hacker, Diana. The Bedford Handbook, New York: RR Donnelley and Sons Company, 2002 p. 577.


Resources used
Resources Used

Hacker, Diana. The Bedford Handbook, New York: RR Donnelley and Sons Company, 2002.

Hock, Randolph. The Extreme Searcher’s Internet Handbook, A Guide for the Serious Searcher. 2nd Edition. Medford: CyberAge Books, 2007.

http://internettutorials.net/boolean.asp.

http://owl/english/purdue.edu/owl/resource/589/01/.

Mautner, Christopher, Timothy McLain, Vince DiStefano and David Kershaw, eds. Educator’s Internet Companion, 6th Edition. 1999.

www.dictionary.com.


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