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Welcome to Alfred’s Museum of The Umayyads. Museum Entrance. Conflicts. Government. Major People. Religion. Geography. Curator’s Offices. Tanner “The Dark Night” Thompson And Rusty “The Boy Wonder” Hutson. Curator’s Office.

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Museum Entrance

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Museum entrance

Welcome to Alfred’s Museum of

The Umayyads

Museum Entrance

Conflicts

Government

Major People

Religion

Geography

Curator’s

Offices


Curator s office

Tanner “The Dark Night” Thompson And Rusty “The Boy Wonder” Hutson

Curator’s Office

Tanner and Rusty have been defending Gotham city as well as recording history since 625 C.E. They founded this museum in memory of their dear butler, Alfred, who recently passed away due to overdose on the Jokers laughing gas.

Place your picture here.

http://www.teletoon.com/blogs/en/atnight/wp-content/uploads/2010/06/Batman-and-Robin.jpg

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Contact us at [email protected]

Note: Virtual museums were first introduced by educators at Keith Valley Middle School in Horsham, Pennsylvania. This template was designed by Dr. Christy Keeler. View the Educational Virtual Museums website for more information on this instructional technique.


Room 1

Major People

Room 1

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Room 2

Conflicts

Room 2

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Room 3

Government

Room 3

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Room 4

Geography

Room 4

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Room 5

Religion

Room 5

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Muawiya

Muawiya

Muawiya, ruled from 661-680. He moved the capital to Damascus. He had a very highly skilled military that allowed Muslim authority to spread in West into Africa and east into Khorasan. He also attacked Anatolia multiple times starting in 672 and from 674-677 he staged an unsuccessful siege on Constantinople that ended his campaign. During his rule, he kept the administrative structures of the Persian and Byzantine empires but he maintained his authority by placing his family members in key positions. Before his death, he made sure that his son would take over when he died, thus starting the Umayyad Dynasty.

http://www.princeton.edu/~batke/itl/denise/umayyads.htm

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Yazid b muawiya

Yazid B. Muawiya

Yazid B. Muawiya

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Yazid lived from 642- 683 CE and ruled for only three years from 680-683 CE. Yazid had commanded the army that laid siege to Constantinople during his father’s rule and now he continued to follow the path that his father laid for him. He continued his father’s military and administrative policies but he reformed the tax system and improved irrigation in Damascus. His reign was ended quickly because he died shortly after he gained power. His death caused a nine year conflict because the doubts about the successor prevented any agreements.

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Linked citation goes here

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Abd al malik

Abd al-Malik

Abd al-Malik

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Following Yazid’s reign which lasted only three years. Abd helped a lot in restoring peace in Iraq and Arabia during his reign from 685- 705 CE. During his rule, he made arabic the official language and the old byzantine coins were replaced with Islamic style coins. Under his sons who ruled after him, the Umayyad empire stretched to Spain and east to Transoxiana.

http://www.ancient-art.com/images/ac59.jpg

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Marwan ii

Marwan II

Marwan II

Marwan the second, who was the last Caliph of the Umayyad dynasty, ruled from 744 to 750 CE. He tried to restore order, but by this time the Abbasid revolutionary movement had gained too much power and in 749 the first Abbasid caliph was proclaimed. In 750 the Umayyad people were massacred and very few of them made it to Spain besides Abd al-Rahman who started the Umayyads of Cordoba.

http://historyfacebook.wikispaces.com/file/view/Umayyads_small.jpg/30592300/Umayyads_small.jpg

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Battle of tours

Battle of Tours

Battle of Tours

In this battle between the Franks and Umayyads, located in northern France, the umayyads suffered a major defeat. Abdul Rahman al Ghafiqi, the Umayyad caliph, was killed during this battle. Not much is known about this battle, such as numbers and exact location but we do know that the Franks won without a cavalry.

Linked citation goes here

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http://www.freedomszone.com/archives/Battle%20of%20Tours.png


Siege of constantinople

Siege of Constantinople

Siege of Constantinople

Under Muawiya in 674 there was a siege laid onto the city of Constantinople that was in control of the Byzantine Empire at the time. Yazid, Muawiya’s son, was the commander of the Arabs. The Arabs could not penetrate the Theodosian walls of Constantinople and had to retreat before winter to an island eighty miles away.

http://images.fragland.net/screenshots/2905/8.jpg

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Rebellions during yazid s reign

Rebellions during Yazid’s Reign

Rebellions during Yazid’s Reign

During Yazid’s reign, there were two rebellions. Husayn, the son of Ali and the grandson of Muhammed lead the first rebellion. This rebellion was quickly destroyed, but this rebellion made a permanent division between the shi’ites and the sunnis. The second rebellion was much more serious. The rebellion was lead by Ibn al-Zubayr in Medina and Mecca. The Medinans claimed that Yazid was dead, so Yazid sent an army that easily crushed the Medinans. He then went to Mecca where Ibn was hiding, and laid the city to siege. The news then arrived that Yazid actually died so the conflict was not easily resolved and continued for nine years.

http://www.princeton.edu/~batke/itl/denise/yazid.htm

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The battle of akroinon

The Battle of Akroinon

The Battle of Akroinon

This battle was fought in 740 between Umayyad Arabs and the Byzantine Empire. The battle was fought during the invasion of Anatolia when the Arabs allegedly had 90,000 soldiers. The Arab forces were split into different groups each attacking different parts of Anatolia and the largest group took part in te battle of Akroinon. The Arabs were defeated in this battle and it marked the end of the invasion. This was the last great invasion of any other empire because the Umayyad dynasty fell in the next ten years.

http://www.patriotfiles.com/gallery/data/647/2akro740.jpg

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Dynastic rule

Dynastic Rule

Dynastic Rule

During the Umayyad Dynasty, there was a dynastic rule. Power was passed on from father to son. The sons also carried on many of their father’s administrations, like Yazid continuing his fathers military policies. The sons also improved things that they thought needed to be improved like the irrigation in Damascus. The rulers of this dynasty were called caliphs.

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Museum entrance

Umayyad Administration

Under the caliph, there were six boards: Diwan al-Kharaj (the Board of Revenue), Diwan al-Rasa'il (the Board of Correspondence), Diwan al-Khatam (the Board of Signet), Diwan al-Barid (the Board of Posts), Diwan al-Qudat (Board of Justice) and Diwan al-Jund (the Military Board). These boards helped manage different parts of the dynasty so the caliph did not have to deal with them.

http://www.mfa.gov.il/NR/rdonlyres/2673C1E8-4344-4055-9C53-2B6DDD6AE312/0/MFAJ04od0.jpg

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Boards

Boards

Boards

Diwan al-Kharaj, also known as the Central Board of Revenues dealt with finances, imposed and collected taxes and disbursed revenue. Diwan al-Rasa’il, also known as the Board of Correspondence, organized the entire dynasty by sending out fliers and pamphlets. Diwan al-Khatam, the organizers of the postal service, allowed messages to be delivered very quick.

http://taxdollars.ocregister.com/files/2009/03/postal-service.jpg

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Boards continued

Boards continued…

Boards continued…

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Diwan al-Khatam was basically the archivers. They would make a copy of each official document and store these documents. Diwan al-Qudat was the justice department and the judges were called Qudi. Diwan al-Jund was in charge of organizing the military. They would decide how much soldiers would get paid, and where each division would be in battle.

http://portal.unesco.org/ci/en/files/25648/11955504697archives.jpg/archives.jpg

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Umayyad capital state

Umayyad Capital State

The center of the Umayyad Dynasty was in modern-day Syria. The capital, Damascus, was moved here by Muawiya who wanted the capital in his homeland. It was made the capital due to its political, social, and economic links with surrounding tribes and kingdoms. Although it was the capital of an Islamic dynasty, the majority of Damascans weren’t Islamic.

http://www.merriam-webster.com/maps/images/maps/syria_map.gif

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Terrain

Terrain

The terrain in the Umayyad territory was almost completely desert, and semi-arid plains. There were also mountains in the west and a small strip of coastal plain on the Mediterranean Sea. The fact that there were few mountains and mostly coastal plains made transportation of goods, soldiers, ideas, and Umayyad culture much easier.

http://offtrackplanet.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/07/DesertScene.jpg

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Climate

Climate

The climate of the Umayyad was closely related to their terrain. They’re located close to the equator so their climate is very hot and dry, resulting in a desert. The summers are hot and dry with lots of sunshine (not always a good thing), while the winters are short, and rainy.

http://dubaihotels.ae/images/temperature.jpg

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Weather natural hazards

Weather/Natural Hazards

The Middle East is riddled with sand and dust storms that can destroy crops and farm yields. Because of this and the desert climate, it was very hard for the Umayyads to grow crops of any kind. As we all know, growing crops in sand is a no-go.

http://users.apex2000.net/ajbergstrom/Sandstorm.jpg

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Great mosque of damascus

Great Mosque of Damascus

The Umayyads were also the first Muslim dynasty to rule the Arabs. Built in 709 C.E., The Great Mosque of Damascus was the first architectural monument in Islamic history. Ranked as one of the wonders of the world, the temple was later shared with the Christians. The Muslims would pray in the eastern side, and the Christians in the western side.

http://famouswonders.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/03/umayyad-mosque.jpg

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Islam

Islam

The Umayyads were the first Islamic dynsty and helped spread the religion, along with their empire, from the Middle East to North Africa Spain and Central Asia. The Umayyads also adopted a theocracy where the religious leaders ruled the empire. Because of this the empire used sharia as their laws, giving Islam a large impact on their culture.

http://www.mrdowling.com/images/605islam.gif

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The dome of the rock

The Dome of the Rock

The Dome of the Rock was built by the Umayyad caliph in 688 AD. It is located in Jerusalem on top of The Temple Mount. It is not a Mosque, but a Muslim shrine. It is believed to be the spot where Muhammad rose to heaven. The Dome of the Rock is the oldest Islamic monument that stands today.

http://www.jerusalempedia.com/images/Dome_of_the_Rock.jpg

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Umayyad caliphs

Umayyad Caliphs

Muawiya was the first Umayyad caliph, and the founder of the Umayyad Empire. The Caliphs were the rulers/emperors of the Umayyad Empire. They had supreme political and religious powers. The caliphs position (when they passed away) was taken, ususally, by a family member or other family member of Muhammed.

http://www.virtualmuseum.ca/Exhibitions/Annodomini/THEME_07/IMAGES/J991542.jpg

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The spread of islam

The Spread of Islam

The Umayyads were responsible for the initial spread of Islam. Islam basically was the Umayyad culture so when their empire and culture spread, so did Islam. Without the Umayyad Empire, Islam may never have spread and become the second largest religion in the world today. The Umayyads helped Islam spread to all of the Middle East, West Asia, North Africa, and Western Europe.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/84/Islam-by-country-smooth.png

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The umayyad caliphate seal

The Umayyad Caliphate Seal

This was the seal that went on all official Umayyad documents and letters.

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Umayyad flag

Umayyad Flag

This is the official flag of the Umayyads. The sword represents the dynasty’s military strength and power, and the dark green color shows ambition and growth.

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The umayyads

The Umayyads

In Summary, the Umayyad Empire was responsible for the growth and spread of Islam. Not only that, but it was also the fifth largest ancient empire to ever exist. They adopted the use of caliphs for political and religious rulers and they created great religious monuments.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5b/Umayyad750ADloc.png

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