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Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design. Example of a Printed Circuit Board – front and back side. The course material was developed in INSIGTH II, a project sponsored by the Leonardo da Vinci program of the European Union. PCB Design, Introduction.

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chapter 6 printed circuit board design
Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

Example of a Printed Circuit Board – front and back side

The course material was developed in INSIGTH II, a project sponsored by the Leonardo da Vinci program of the European Union

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

pcb design introduction
PCB Design, Introduction
  • For new electronic products, designers are key persons, but should work in intimate cooperation with:
    • Sales, marketing and customers
    • Subcontractors
    • Production process experts
    • Cost engineers
    • Logistics and purchasing staff
    • etc.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

pcb design continued
PCB Design, continued
  • Advanced PCB CAD tools a neccessity
    • Schematics
    • Component Library
    • Critical Parameters (Placement Constraints, Electromagnetic Compatibility, Thermal Limitations, etc)
    • Automatic Routing
    • Final Touch Manual Routing
    • (Verification by Final Simulation and Back Annotation)

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

pcb cad tools continued
PCB CAD tools, continued
  • Output:
    • Final Schematics
    • Assembly Drawings
    • Documentation for PWB Manufacturer (”Gerber” file giving input for making PWB Manucturing Data (See Chapter 5):
      • Data for Photo- or Laser Plotter for Making Photographic Films and Printing Masks
      • Data for Numeric Drilling and Milling Machines
      • Data for Placement Machines
      • Data for Test Fixtures and Testing Machines

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

pcb design continued1
PCB Design, continued
  • Guidelines for Right Quality
    • Choice of Best Suited Technology/Technologies
    • Choice of Components: Right Compromise between Performance, Reliability, Cost, etc.
    • Design for Production
    • Design for Testability
    • Design for Repair

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

pcb design continued2
PCB Design, continued
  • Guidelines on Design for Manufacture
    • Few layers
    • Coarse pattern
    • Standardisation
    • Robust design (coarse tolerances)
    • Orderly placement

Fig. 6.1.a: Proper component placement for hole- and surface mounted components

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

orderly placement continued
Orderly Placement, continued

Fig. 6.1.b: Proper component placement for hole- and surface mounted IC components

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

pcb design continued3
PCB Design, continued
  • Important Guideline for "Robust Design":
    • Circuits should function with large parameter tolerances:
      • Design windows allowing for variations in component parameters.
      • Process windows allowing for variations in each process step.
    • Regulatory requirements on safety and EMC should be passed within the specified design and process windows.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

design of hole and surface mounted pcbs design parameters
Design of Hole and Surface Mounted PCBs: Design Parameters
  • Minimum Dimensions:
    • The conductor cross section areas and resistivity of the material determine maximum current capacity and thereby minimum dimensions.
    • Current capacity is limited by excessive heating of the conductors and the PCB.
    • Maximum allowed ohmic voltage drop along the conductor also determines minimum dimensions.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

design parameters minimum dimensions
Design Parameters: Minimum Dimensions

Fig. 6.2: Current capacity and temperature increase in conductors on PCBs.The upper figure shows the temperature increase (labels on each curve) at different combinations of cross-sections and currents). The lower figure shows the conductor cross-section (along the x-axis) as a function of the conductor width for different Cu-layer thicknesses.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

design parameters dc line resistance
Design Parameters: DC Line Resistance:
  • DC Line resistance:R = r • L/(t • b)r ~ 2 .0 • 10 -8Wm for Cu foil
    • r is resistivity of the conductor material (ohm m)
    • L is conductor length
    • t is conductor thickness
    • b is conductor width
  • Sheet Resistance[ohm/square]:
    • Rsq = r / t
    • R = Rsq • L / b
    • 18 um copper: Rsq~ 1 mW/sq
    • 35 um copper: Rsq~ 0.5 mW/sq

L

b

t

Current I

L

r/

R = R •

R =

t

b

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

hole and surface mounted pcb design
Hole and Surface Mounted PCB Design
  • Pattern Minimum Dimensions:

Table 6.1: Examples of minimum dimension and PCB classes. The class indicates how many conductors can pass between the solder pads of a DIP package (no. of channels), and typical corresponding minimum dimensions in mm. When two figures are given for hole diameters, they are for component- and via holes respectively.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

pattern minimum dimensions continued
Pattern Minimum Dimensions,continued

a)

b)

Fig. 6.4: a): Parameters in layout dimensions used in Table 6.1. b): Minimum dimensions for solder mask for surface mount PWBs. Left: Dimensions for screen printed solder mask, with one common opening for all solder lands of an IC package. Right: Photoprocessible solder mask with a "pocket" for each terminal, permitting conductors between the solder lands.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

mixed hole mount and smd printed circuit boards
Mixed Hole Mount and SMD Printed Circuit Boards
  • Mixed PCBs are quite common due to:
    • Technical issues
    • Component availability and cost
    • Available capacity and performance of equipment in PCB manufacturing line(s).

Fig. 6.5: Common types of SMD- and mixed SMD-/hole mount PCBs.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

smd printed circuit boards
SMD Printed Circuit Boards
  • Important aspects of design:
    • Component heat tolerances for reflow-/wave solder processes
    • Component orientation for wave solder:
      • Shadowing
    • Solder thieves for wave soldering
    • Minimum distance between components
    • Isolated via holes/solder lands

Fig. 6.6: Preferred and not preferred directions of SMD components during wave soldering.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

important aspects of design continued
Important Aspects of Design, continued

Fig. 6.7: Minimum separation between SMD components during wave soldering.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

important aspects of design continued1
Important Aspects of Design, continued

Fig. 6.8: Solder lands for SMD components should be separated from heavy copper areas by narrow constrictions. Conductors should preferably leave the solder lands of one component symmetrically.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

important aspects of design continued2
Important Aspects of Design, continued

Fig. 6.9: Via holes should be separated from solder lands.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

important aspects of design continued3
Important Aspects of Design, continued

Fig. 6.10: Dummy land for better control of the amount of adhesive in wave soldering process.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

important aspects of design cont
Important Aspects of Design, cont..

Fig. 6.11: "Solder thieves" are areas in the Cu layer to reduce bridging in wave soldering. Placed as the last area exposed to the solder wave

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

important aspects of design continued4
Important Aspects of Design, continued

Fig. 6.12: Parameters defining solder land dimensions for SMD resistors and capacitors, please refer to Table 6.2.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

solder land dimensions
Solder Land Dimensions

Table 6.2: Solder land dimensions for SMD resistors and capacitors (mm), please refer to Figure 6.12.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

solder land dimensions continued
Solder Land Dimensions, continued

Fig. 6.13: Additional dimensions of SMD component and solder lands. Width a: a = Wmax + K Length b: * Reflow : b = Hmax + 2Tmax + K * Wave: b = Hmax + 2Tmax + 2K Length B: B = Lmax + 2Hmax + 2Tmax + K, K = 0.25 mm.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

solder land dimensions continued1
Solder Land Dimensions, continued

Fig. 6.14: Solder land dimensions for SMD transistors and diodes.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

solder land dimensions continued2
Solder Land Dimensions, continued

Table 6.3: Solder land dimensions for SO or VSO components (mm), please refer to Figure 6.15.

Fig. 6.15: Solder land dimensions for SO and VSO packages, please refer to Table 6.3.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

solder land dimensions continued3
Solder Land Dimensions, continued

Fig. 6.16: Solder land dimensions for PLCC, LLCC and flatpacks, please refer to Tables 6.4 - 6.7.

  • a = Bmax + 0.1 mm B = width of leas
  • b = Fmax + 0.4 mm F = length of lead footprint
  • A,B = Emax + 0.8 mm E = separation between lead ends

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

solder land dimensions continued4
Solder Land Dimensions, continued

Table 6.4: Solder land dimensions for PLCC (mm), please refer to Figure 6.16. Pitch, P = 1.27 (0.050") a = 0.63 b = 2.0

Table 6.5: Solder land dimensions for LLCC (mm), please refer to Figure 6.16. Pitch, P = 1.27 (0.050") a = 0.63 b = 2.5

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

solder land dimensions continued5
Solder Land Dimensions, continued

Table 6.6: Solder land dimensions for flatpacks (mm), please refer to Figure 6.16. b = 2.5

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

solder land dimensions continued6
Solder Land Dimensions, continued

Fig. 6.17: Solder land dimensions for TAB.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

design for testability
Design for Testability

Fig. 6.18: a): Correct position of test point, separated from solder land. b): Test points on solder lands are not recommended. c): Testing on components or component leads should be avoided.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

design for testability continued
Design for Testability, continued

Fig. 6.19: Examples of test point placement on a grid with 0.1” spacing, for testing of SMD components with 0.05” pitch.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

testability
Testability
  • Defect level:
      • DL (ppm) = 1 - Y(1-T) x 106
      • DL = defect level
      • Y = yield
      • T = fault coverage (One cannot test all failure modes)
  • Test Methods
    • Functional test (Test the PCB in the system – PCB OK or not)
    • In-circuit test (Test at local test points – finds the exact fault)
    • Scan path (For logic circuits – digital output versus input)
    • Boundary scan (Scan path with separate test pins)
    • Built-in self test (Add test circuitry on the PCB)

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

test principles
Test Principles
  • Guidelines for Test Strategy for In-circuit test
    • Single sided (normally) - double sided test fixtures are expensive and less robust
    • Separate test points - avoid using component leads or solder lands
    • 0.1" grid (normally) - 0.05 ” test probes are fragile (0.1" is 2.5mm)
    • Solder on test points for reliable contact
    • Watch out and consider possible problems with high component
    • Modern equipment often uses flying probes:Example on YouTube:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sj5yDyWw67w

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

material considerations for thermal compatibility
Material Considerations for Thermal Compatibility

Fig. 6.20: Mechanical strain is caused by difference in coefficient of thermal expansion (TCE), and changes in temperature. The magnitude of the corresponding stress depends on dimensions, temperature difference/change, and the elastic moduli of the materials.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

thermal design
Thermal Design

Electronic components can dissipate a lot of heat!

“You can use your PC for cooking” – some chips are rated for more than 100 degrees C

From Vevin Skadron, Un of Virginia

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

thermal design1
Thermal Design

Fig. 6.21: a): Heat flow from hole mounted and surface mounted components on a PCB. b): Relative amount of heat removed by conduction, convection and radiation, from DIP hole mounted components and SMD LLCC components - typical values.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

thermal design2
Thermal Design
  • Fourier´s law
    • Q = DT/RT
    • RT = (1/K) • (L/A)

Q = Heat flow [W]

DT = Temperature difference [°C]

RT = Thermal resistance [°C/W]

K = Thermal conductivity [W/m°C]

L,A = Length / cross-section

  • Equivalent to Ohm´s law :
    • I = DU/Rel

Rel = 1/s • L/A

  • Convection: Q = h • A • DT
    • h = convection coefficient [W/m oC]
  • Fig. 6.22:
  • a): Heat flow due to conduction - Fourier´s equation.
  • b): Heat flow due to convection.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

thermal design continued
Thermal Design, continued
  • Thermal Resistance
    • Rjc: Thermal resistance junction - case
    • Rjl: Thermal resistance junction - lead
    • Rja:Thermal resistance junction - ambient
  • Tj = Ta + P • Rja
    • Ta: Ambient temperature
    • Tj : Junction temperature

Fig. 6.23: Thermal model of an IC and package.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

thermal design continued1
Thermal Design, continued
  • Example: IBM’s Thermal Module for Mainframe Logics

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

thermal design continued2
Thermal Design, continued

Table 6.8: Typical thermal resistances for various package types [oC/W]

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

thermal design continued3
Thermal Design, continued

Table 6.9: Typical values for the effective thermal conductivity of different types of PCBs.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

thermal design continued4
Thermal Design, continued
  • Effective Thermal Conductivity in PCBs
    • Keff = S (kiti) / ttot
      • ki = thermal conductivity layer i
      • ti = thickness layer i
      • ttot = total thickness

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

thermal design continued5
Thermal Design, continued
  • Design of Right Thermal Coefficient of Expansion (TCE)
    • a = S ( ai Ei ti ) / S ( Ei ti )
      • ti = thickness of layer i
      • ai = TCE material in layer i
      • Ei = Elastic modulus of layer i

Table 6.10: Material parameters for calculating TCE and effective thermal conductivity of metal core boards.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

:::::::::DET TAS FORBEHOLD OM ENDRINGER

thermal design continued6
Thermal Design, continued

Fig. 6.24: Cross section and thicknesses for a practical PWB with two Cu/Invar/Cu cores. The thicknesses were designed to get an over-all TCE of 7.5 [ppm/°C • m] The achieved value was measured to be 9.3 [ppm/°C • m] Calculated effective thermal conductivity in the x - y directions was 21 [W/ °C • m]

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

thermal design continued7
Thermal Design, continued

Fig. 6.25: a): Pin-grid package with cooling fins. b): Measured thermal resistance in the component with forced air cooling.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

thermal design continued8
Thermal Design, continued

Fig. 6.26: LLCC package with thermal solder lands and thermal vias connected to a metal core in the PCB.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

thermal design continued9
Thermal Design, continued
  • Improved Cooling
    • Thermal vias
    • Cooling fins
    • Fan
    • Thermally conducting gas: helium, fluorocarbon
    • Liquid: water, fluorocarbon, oil
    • Boiling liquid
    • Heat pipe
    • Impingement cooling/Microbellows
    • Microgrooves

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

thermal design continued10
Thermal Design, continued

Fig. 6.27: a): Forced air convection in a channel between two PCBs (Texas Instruments)

b): Water-cooled heat exchanger for edge cooling of PCBs and temperature distribution (qualitative).

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

thermal design continued11
Thermal Design, continued

Fig. 6.28: Heat convection coefficient in different cooling media for natural convection, forced convection and boiling

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

thermal design continued12
Thermal Design, continued

Fig. 6.29: "Microbellows cooling": A jet of water or other cooling liquid impinges on the backside of the chip. The bellow structure is necessary to accommodate thermal expansion

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

thermal design continued13
Thermal Design, continued

Fig. 6.30: Cooling by forcing liquid through microscopic, etched channels in the semiconductor chip [6.32]. The channels are approximately 400 µm deep and 100 µm wide.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

thermal simulation
Thermal Simulation

Fig. 6.31: Bar diagram for calculated temperatures on each component chip by the thermal simulation program TMOD.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

thermal simulation1
Thermal Simulation

Heat dissipation and heat transfer simulations. From Toshiba

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

high frequency design
High Frequency Design
  • When needed?
    • tr < 2.5 tf
    • tr = 10 - 90 % rise time
    • tf = l/v
      • tr is 10-90% rise time
      • tf is time-of-flight-delay over the length l of critical conductor paths of the circuit
      • v is propagation speed: v = c/er
        • c speed of light (3x10E8 m/sec 30cm/ns)
        • ereffective relative dielectric constant

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

high frequency design1
High Frequency Design

Fig. 6.32: Distributed parameters in a model of a loss free transmission line. C and L are capacitance and inductance per m length.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

lossy transmission line

R’

L’

C’

G’

Lossy transmission line
  • Resistive power loss
  • R’: the resistance along the line (per meter)
  • L’: the inductance along the line (per meter)
  • G’: the conductance shunting the line (per meter)
  • C’: the capacitance shunting the line (per meter)
  • Series components are the sum of both signal and ground.
high frequency design2
High Frequency Design

Table 6.11: Signal propagation speed in different media. v = c0/(Öer) = 30 (cm/ns)/Öer

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

loss less line

L

C

Loss less line
  • Homogenous and loss less transmission line
  • Telegrapher’s equation:
    • At high frequencies the transmission line losses on printed circuit boards in digital systems can be neglected -> homogenous
  • Parameters:
    • Distance to ground (power) plane(s)
    • Geometry of conductor and dielectric around
      • Additive / Subtractive process give different geometry
    • Influence of delamination (air)
    • Frequency dependent dielectric properties
high frequency design cont
High Frequency Design, cont
  • Characteristic Impedance
    • V = Zo·I
      • Zo characteristic impedance :
        • Zo = ((R + jwL)/(G + jwC))1/2
        • w = angular frequency
        • R = resistance per unit length
        • L = inductance per unit length
        • C = capacitance per unit length
        • G = loss conductance per unit length
      • In loss free medium:
        • Zo = (L/C)
      • Reflection coefficient:
        • R = (Z1 - Z2)/(Z1 + Z2)
          • Z1 and Z2 : characteristic impedances of media 1 and 2

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

propagation speed v
Propagation speed, v
  • Dependent on electrical properties
  • Derived from the material properties of the medium (Maxwell equations)
    • Homogenous lossless transmission line in a uniform dielectric medium
      • mr =1 for all non-magnetic materialsm is magnetic permeability
delay
Causes:

Rise / fall time of component (driver)

Physical distance

Time of flight delay:

Concerns:

Synchronisation

Clock Screw

“simultaneous” is relative

Delay

From one end of the line to the other (loss less line)

Propagation speed (Co=30cm/ns)

Dielectric r (cm/nsec)

Polyimid 2,5 - 3,5 16 - 19

Silicon dioxide 3,9 15

Epoxy glass (PCB) 4,2 - 5,0 13

Alumina (ceramic) 9,5 10

reflections
Reflections

Fig. 6.34: Distorted signal as a function of time when the transmitter has 78 ohms impedance the same as the characteristic impedance and the receiver has different impedances as indicated. If the receiver also has 78 ohms impedance the signal at the receiver is a time delayed replica of the transmitted signal.

If RL=Z0, transmission line behave as it was infinitely long, hence no reflection

termination of line reflections
Termination of line reflections
  • Terminate by:
    • Characteristic line impedance
    • A 50% mismatch is acceptable
  • However termination gives:
    • Higher power dissipation
    • Which needs a higher driver capability
    • Different techniques for adjust termination to the driver capability, next slide…

It should be noted that if a reflection does occur, and propagates back to the driver (source), it can reflect again off the source. The driver has an output impedance. If that output impedance is exactly equal to Zo, then there will be no further reflection from the source. But if the output impedance of the driver is different than Zo, an additional reflection will occur. The magnitude of that reflection is again determined by a reflection coefficient.

reflections from other discontinuities
Reflections from other discontinuities
  • In a typical PCB the characteristic impedance of the x and y wiring planes are not identical. (anisotrop media)
  • Connection via forms a small inductive and capacitive discontinuity
  • Other:
    • Connectors
    • Corners and turns of the copper line
      • Do not use 90° turns
    • Pins of IC packages
    • Capacitors and terminating resistors
obtaining a controlled impedance
Obtaining a controlled impedance

Fig. 6.35: Geometries for obtaining a controlled characteristic impedance.

See pages 6.38 and 6.39 for equations and examples

high frequency design continued
High Frequency Design, continued

Fig. 6.36: Expressions for characteristic impedance, Zo, signal propagation speed, TPD, capacitance per unit length, Co, and crosstalk, XTalk, in different geometries: a) coaxial, b) microstrip c) stripline. The expression for coaxial geometry is exact, the others are approximate and valid only in certain parameter ranges.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

high frequency design continued1
High Frequency Design, continued

Fig. 6.37: Dependence of the characteristic impedance on geometric dimensions, for: a) Striplineb) Microstrip. w is the signal conductor width, S is the distance between ground planes for stripline, and H the distance between signal conductor and ground plane for microstrip (please refer to Figure 6.35). Curves are shown for different signal conductor thicknesses, t.

a

b

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

cross talk
Cross talk
  • Cross talk is the capacitive and inductive coupling of signals from one signal line to another
  • Increases with board density and performance (frequency and current drive)
    • Distance to ground (power) plane
    • Smaller conductor spacing
    • Dielectric constant
    • Larger currents
    • Rise and fall times
    • Current drive
  • Near End Crosstalk or reverse crosstalk If we measure the crosstalk in the sample line at the same end of the cable we inserted the signal, it is called near end or reverse/backward crosstalk.
  • Far End Crosstalk or forward crosstalkIf we measure the crosstalk in the sample line at the opposite end of the cable that we inserted the signal, it is called far end or forward crosstalk
high frequency design continued2
High Frequency Design, continued

Fig. 6.38: Cross talk: A signal from A to C is transmitted to the B - D line and gives noise in B (backward or near end cross talk) and in D (forward or far end cross talk).

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

cross talk1
Cross talk

Cross talk: A signal from A to B is transmitted to the C - D line and gives noise in C (reverse or near end cross talk) and in D (forward or far end cross talk).

high frequency design continued3
High Frequency Design, continued

Fig. 6.39: Backward cross talk as a function of conductor separation in stripline geometry in different dielectrics. The effect increases with increasing er and decreases with increasing conductor separation.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

minimize cross talk
Minimize cross-talk
  • Use maximum allowable spacing between signal lines
  • Use low dielectrics materials
  • Minimize spacing between signal and ground lines / plane
  • Isolate clocks and critical signals form other lines with larger line spacing or isolate with ground lines
    • Use twisted pair for sensitive signals (clock, reset, set, clear)
    • When using ribbon cable make every other line a ground line (e.g. U-ATA (UDMA hard disk cable)
  • Terminate signals lines into characteristic impedance, use low impedance drivers
attenuation
Attenuation
  • Vb = Vaexp(-al)
    • a: Attenuation coefficient
      • a = (ar, as ) + ad
        • ar dominates at low frequencies
        • as at high frequencies (GHz)
        • ar = R / (2Zo)
        • as = (p mr mo f r)1/2 / (w Zo) for skin depth ds = (r / p f mrmo)1/2 << t
        • ad = [p (eoe)1/2 f tan d]/ c
          • R = ohmic resistance per unit length
          • r= electrical DC resistivity in the conductor
          • t = conductor thickness
          • tan d= dielectric loss tangent
          • w =conductor width
          • f = frequency and m = mrmo = magnetic permeability

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

skin depth
Skin depth
  • With an alternating current, however, there is a delay in the magnetic field\'s response to the change in current and the \'old\' magnetic field tends to push the current towards the outside of the conductor. As the frequency increases, so does the effect until at very high frequencies the entire current flows in a very narrow skin on the conductor--hence the name.
  • Skin depth is due to the circulating eddy currents (arising from a changing H field) cancelling the current flow in the center of a conductor and reinforcing it in the skin.
attenuation continued
Attenuation, continued
  • Fig. 6.40: High frequency skin depth for copper, and conductor resistance due to skin effect, relative to the DC resistance. The resistance has increased by approx. a factor 2 when the skin depth d is one half of the conductor thickness t.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

attenuation continued1
Attenuation, continued

Fig. 6.41: Conductor- and dielectric losses as functions of frequency for multilayer thin film modules.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

slide83

Figure 1, run once with a 4-mil-wide trace (red eye diagram) and once with 8-mil (yellow). The wider trace has less skin-effect loss, and therefore better signal quality as indicated by the more-open eye.

Eye opening: Space between 1 and 0: See: http://bwrc.eecs.berkeley.edu/classes/icdesign/ee290c_s11/lectures/Lecture02_Link_Over_Environ_6up.pdf

Same simulation as in Figure 1\'s better eye, run once with a typical FR-4 dielectric (loss tangent = 0.02; yellow eye diagram) and once with a low-loss dielectric (loss tangent = 0.004; purple). The low-loss material makes a substantial improvement to the eye opening, but would result in a much costlier PCB.

ground bounce
Ground bounce
  • Wirebonds, package pins and PCB routing acts as inductances at high frequency
  • Induced voltage/noise bounce: VL=L(dI/dt)
  • Good practice:
    • Lower rise times
    • Lower output drive
    • Use ground and power plane
    • Use bypass capacitors for power
    • Minimize power/ground tracks (use plane)
    • Use vias wisely (vias acts as a inductance)
power distribution
Power distribution
  • Simultaneous switching gives large current spikes
  • High capacitance  Keeps stable voltage levels
  • Low inductance  makes L dI/dt switching noise low
  • Power distribution is also modelled as transmission lines
  • Reduced supply voltage reduced signal to noise
practical
Practical
  • Use ground - power planes
    • Reference planes for signal lines
    • Better dynamic power distribution
  • Time of flight
    • High packaging density
  • Cross talk
    • Large separation between signal lines
  • Want a high impedance from the driver circuit point of view: I= U/Z
  • However: High impedance <=> Low packaging density
  • Manufacturing tolerances
  • Line width, homogeneity
emc electromagnetic compliance
EMC - Electromagnetic compliance
  • International rules for:
    • Radiation of electromagnetic energy
    • Functionality of device in an electromagnetic field (environment)
  • Noise interference with other equipment
  • Immunity against external radiation
  • Design with respect to EMC/EMI from the start
emc design of circuit
EMC - Design of circuit
  • Wires and current loops acts as antennas
    • Good PCB design
    • Ground and power planes
  • Shielding
  • Basic design rules
    • Ground plane
    • Compact design
      • Reduced current loops
      • Minimum clock frequency
    • Components with as long rise / fall time as possible
    • Decoupling capacitors
    • Shielding
    • Star topology
    • Metal case

LSots opening

spice simulations
SPICE simulations
  • High speed simulation difficult
    • Not accurate models
    • Stray capacitance and inductance
    • Skin effect
    • Cross talk
    • Power supply
    • Radiant effects will need wave simulation FEM,FEA,TLM…
  • No model will represent the absolute truth…
software simulation at ghz
Software simulation at Ghz
  • GREATER HIGH FREQUENCY CAUSE CONCERNS
  • As Wave-lengths reduce to package pattern dimensions (@ 5 GHz , l/10 = 5 mm), each trace becomes a radiating antenna :
    • Radiated energy = signal loss
    • Radiated energy = interference on other electric conductors
    • Radiated energy = increased EMC problems
    • Radiated energy = damage to living organisms
  • Alternative means of conduction will have to be used, when these factors become dangerous:
    • Shielded conductors (conductor surrounded by Ground conductor)
    • Wave-guides
    • Light strands
  • Full-wave Analysis becomes absolutely necessary
measurements on high speed circuits
Measurements on high speed circuits
  • Probe coupling
    • Probe impedance 8-100pF parallel with 1-10M
    • Very important to include with resonance circuits, as capacitance/inductance alters resonant frequency
  • Impedance matching
  • Short ground lead
  • Remember common ground on scope
  • If possible use 50 input
design of flexible printed circuits
Design of Flexible Printed Circuits

Fig. 6.42: Bending of double layer flexible print with different conductor layout. The Figure shows the number of cycles before failure with 5, 10 and 20 mm bending radius and 180° angel of bending. (Data: Schoeller Elektronik). If the copper layer in the bending zone is strained 16 % or more it is likely to fail during the first cycle.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

design of flexible printed circuits continued
Design of Flexible Printed Circuits, continued

Fig. 6.43: a): Solder lands on flexible prints should be rounded in order to reduce the possibility for failures, b): The contour of the board should be rounded in order to reduce possibilities for tearing (dimensions in inches). The "rabbit ears" on the ends of the metal foil is for obtaining better adhesion to the polyimide. c): Plastic rivets should be used to avoid sharp bends in the interface between the flexible and the rigid parts of the PCB.

a)

c)

b)

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

design of membrane switch panels
Design of Membrane Switch Panels

Fig. 6.44: Detail of a membrane switch panel. The tail with interconnections to the panel is protected with a laminated foil. Light emitting diodes may be attached with conductive adhesive. Screen printed polymer thick film series resistors may be used.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

design of membrane switch panels1
Design of Membrane Switch Panels

Fig. 6.45: Contact areas of membrane switch panel with back lighting and window. Examples of lighted text on a dark background and the opposite combination. If a metal dome is used the information has to be next to the key and not underneath it.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

system level modelling
System Level Modelling

Fig. 6.46: The SUSPENS model for the different levels in an electronic system. The symbols are parameters characterising the system and different technologies of the system. They are quantified and used to compare or optimise different possible versions of the system in computer calculations.

VHDL is also used.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

end of chapter 6 printed circuit board design
End of Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design
  • Important issues:
    • When designing PCBs:
      • Working with the right people including marketing and production people
      • Working with the “best” tools
    • Use good Design Guidelines and do not violate Design Parameters
      • Robust design to allow for process variations
        • Use solder land dimension templates
      • Design for test
      • Specific design methods for applications with specific requirements
        • High speed, high power etc.
  • Questions and discussions?

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 6: Printed Circuit Board Design

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