Congenital anomalies of the heart
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Congenital Anomalies of the heart. DR RANIA GABR. objectives. Discuss the congenital anomalies related to the heart development. Congenital Heart Defect Acyanotic Cyanotic volume load pressure load ↑ pulmonary flow ↓ pulmonary flow

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Congenital Anomalies of the heart

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Congenital anomalies of the heart

Congenital Anomalies of the heart

DR RANIA GABR


Objectives

objectives

  • Discuss the congenital anomalies related to the heart development.


Congenital anomalies of the heart

  • Congenital Heart Defect

  • AcyanoticCyanotic

    volume load pressure load ↑ pulmonary flow ↓ pulmonary flow

    left-to-right shunts obstr. ventric. outflow

  • atrial septal defect • pulmonary valve stenosis transpos. of gr. Vessels tetralogy of Fallot

  • ventricular septaldefect aortic valve stenosis single ventricle pulmonary atresia

  • AV canal coarctation of aortatruncusarteriosustricuspid atresia

  • patent ductusarteriosustotal anomalous pulm. total anomalous pulm.

    return w/o obstructionreturn w/ obstruction


Congenital anomalies of the heart

  • Atrial Septal defects:

  • Septum PrimumDefect: Patent foramen ovale

    Defect in the interatrial septum

    Due to absence of the septum

    Primum (Patent foramen ovale)


Congenital anomalies of the heart

  • Septum Secondum Defect:

    Defect in the interatrial septum

    Due to absence of the septum

    Secondum(Patent foramen

    Secondum)


Congenital anomalies of the heart

  • Complete absence of the interatrial septum (Core TriloculareBiventriculare):

    There is complete absence of both septum primum and septum secondum. i.e. there is a common atrium.


Congenital anomalies of the heart

  • Patent osteumprimum:

  • The foramen primum may fail to close inspite of formation of the foramen secondum .

  • This will cause disturbance in the valvular mechanism of the interatrial septum.


Congenital anomalies of the heart

  • Premature closure

    of foramen ovale:

    Rarely , it is closed BEFORE birth.

    It results in marked enlargement of the Right atrium and ventricle.


Congenital anomalies of the heart

  • Persistent atrioventricular canal:

  • The A-V cushions and the septum intermedium fail to develop.

  • The A-V canal remains divided into rt and lt parts.

  • There is usually:

    1- Patent foramen primum

    2- IV septaldefect

    3- Abnormalities in the leaflets of the valves guarding the A-V canal.


Congenital anomalies of the heart

  • Ventricular Septaldefects:

    Usually in the membranous part


Congenital anomalies of the heart

Tetralogy of Fallot:

Four co-occurring heart defects:

• Pulmonary stenosis

• Ventricular septal defect

• Overriding aorta (dextroposition)

• Right ventricular hypertrophy


Congenital anomalies of the heart

  • Eisenmenger'ssyndrome:

    Characteristics of Eisenmenger's syndrome summarized as:

  • persistent truncusarteriosus

  • ventricular septal defect

  • left-right ventricular shunt

  • right ventricle hypertrophy


Congenital anomalies of the heart

  • Congenital Aortic valve stenosis:

  • Occurs due to fusion of the cusps of the aortic valve .

  • Very narrow aortic orifice will cause Lt ventricular hypertrophy.

  • Regurge of blood from the aorta to the left ventricle will increase the ltventr. Hypertrophy.


Congenital anomalies of the heart

  • Congenital Aortic valve atresia:

  • Under developed lt ventricle

  • Narrow ascending aorta

  • Patent ductusarteriosus to carry the blood into the aorta


Congenital anomalies of the heart

  • Pulmonary atresia

  • The pulmonary artery is underdeveloped, the right ventricle very small, and also sometimes the tricuspid valve. The condition is also sometimes referred to as hypoplastic right heart.


Congenital anomalies of the heart

  • Transposition of the great arteries:

  • Most common cyanotic neonatal heart defect

    • Failure of aorticopulmonary septum to

    take a spiraling course

    • Fatal without PDA, ASD, & VSD


Congenital anomalies of the heart

A univentricular heart may be best described as a defect that encompasses two complete atria that provide venous inflow into a dominant ventricle (either right or left) via a malformed AV connection.

  • Single ventricle:


Congenital anomalies of the heart

  • EctopiaCordis:

  • The heart is bulging outside the chest due to wide separation in the 2 parts of the sternum


Congenital anomalies of the heart

  • Dextrocardia:

  • The heart and great vessels are reversed as in mirror image

  • It might be a separate condition or part of Situsinversus


Congenital anomalies of the heart

  • Situsinversus


Thank you

Thank you


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