Solid Waste Generation and Collection Rate
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Solid Waste Generation and Collection Rate Chapter 6. Presentation Outline . Introduction Importance of waste quantities Measures and Method used to quantify solid waste quantities Waste generation rate Factors that affect waste generation and collection rates

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Solid waste generation and collection rate chapter 6

Solid Waste Generation and Collection Rate

Chapter 6


Solid waste generation and collection rate chapter 6

Presentation Outline

  • Introduction

  • Importance of waste quantities

  • Measures and Method used to quantify solid waste quantities

  • Waste generation rate

  • Factors that affect waste generation and collection rates

  • Types and quantities of materials recovered from MSW

  • Quantities of household hazardous waste

  • Waste characterization and diversion studies


Solid waste generation and collection rate chapter 6

Introduction

  • Knowledge of the quantities of solid waste generated, separated for recycling, and collected for further processing or disposal is of fundamental importance to all aspects of solid waste management.

Waste Generation

Waste handling, separation, storage, and processing at the source

Collection

Separation and Processing and transformation of solid waste

Transfer and Transport

Disposal


Solid waste generation and collection rate chapter 6

Importance of Waste Quantities

  • The quantities of solid waste generated and collected are of importance in :

    • determining compliance with federal and state waste diversion programmes

    • selecting specific equipment, and

    • designing of waste collection routes, materials recovery facilities and disposal facilities.

  • Compliance with Federal and State Diversion Programme:

  • Information on the total quantity of MSW as well as the quantity of waste that is now recycled or otherwise does not become part of the waste stream will be required to establish and assess the performance of mandated recycling programmes.

  • For example, if 25% level of recycling is mandated, the following question must be answered: Is the 25% based on the actual quantity generated or is it based on the amount currently collected. if a high percentage of the waste now generated is already recycled, then a 25% reduction in the amount collected may be difficult to achieve.


Solid waste generation and collection rate chapter 6

Importance of Waste Quantities

Design of Solid Waste Management Facilities

  • As the diversion and recycling of waste materials increase, the quantities of waste generated, separated for recycling, collected, and ultimately requiring disposal in landfills become determinants in planning and designing solid waste management facilities.

  • The design of special vehicles for the curbside collection of source – separated wastes depends on the quantities of the individual waste components to be collected.

  • The sizing of MRFs depends on the amount of waste to be collected as well as the variations in the quantities delivered hourly, daily, weekly and monthly.

  • The sizing of landfills depends on the amount of residual waste that must be disposed of after all the recyclable materials have been removed.

Examples:


Solid waste generation and collection rate chapter 6

Measures and Methods Used to Assess Solid Waste Quantities

  • Measures Used to Quantify Solid Waste Quantities

    • The principal reason for measuring the quantities of solid waste generated, separated for recycling, and collected for further processing or disposal is to obtain data that can be used to develop and implement effective solid waste management programme.

    • In any solid waste management study, extreme care must be exercised in deciding what actually needs to be known and in allocating funds for data collection

  • Volume and Weight Measurements

    • Both volume and weight are used for the measurement of solid waste quantities.


Solid waste generation and collection rate chapter 6

Measures and Methods Used to Assess Solid Waste Quantities

  • Volume and Weight Measurements ( Cont’d)

    • The use of volume as a measure of quantity can be misleading.

    • For example, a cubic yard of loose wastes is a different quantity from a cubic yard of wastes that has been compacted in a collection vehicle, and each of these is different from a cubic yard of wastes that has been compacted further in a landfill.

    • Accordingly, if the volume measurements are to be used, the measured volumes must be related to either the degree of compaction of wastes or the specific weight of the waste under the conditions of storage.


Solid waste generation and collection rate chapter 6

Measures and Methods Used to Assess Solid Waste Quantities

  • Volume and Weight Measurements ( Cont’d)

    • To avoid confusion, solid waste quantities should be expressed in terms of weight.

    • Weight is the only accurate basis for records because tonnages can be measured directly , regardless of the degree of compaction.

    • Weight records are also necessary in the transport of the solid wastes because the quantity that can be hauled usually is restricted by highway weight limit rather than by volume

    • The volume and weight are equally important with respect to the capacity of the landfills.


Solid waste generation and collection rate chapter 6

Measures and Methods Used to Assess Solid Waste Quantities

Suggested Units of Expression for Solid Waste Quantities


Solid waste generation and collection rate chapter 6

Measures and Methods Used to Assess Solid Waste Quantities

  • Methods used to Estimate the Waste Quantities

  • Waste quantities are usually estimated on the basis of data gathered by conducting a waste characterization study, using previous waste generation data or some combination of the two approaches.

  • It will be helpful to remember that most measurements of waste quantities do not accurately represent what they are reported or assumed to represent.

  • For example, in predicting residential waste generation rates, the measured rate seldom reflects the true rates because there are confounding factors (e.g., onsite storage and the use of alternative disposal locations) that make the true rate difficult to assess.

  • For U.S, most solid waste generation rates reported in the literature before 1990 are usually based on measurement of the amount of waste collected, not the actual amount generated.


Solid waste generation and collection rate chapter 6

Measures and Methods Used to Assess Solid Waste Quantities

  • Method commonly Used to Estimate Waste Quantities

    • Load-count analysis

    • weight – volume analysis

    • materials – balance analysis

  • Load – count analysis

    • the number of individual loads and the corresponding waste characteristics ( type of waste, estimated volume) are noted over a specified time period.

    • If scales are available, weight data are also recorded.

    • unite generation rates are determined by using the field data and where necessary published data.


Solid waste generation and collection rate chapter 6

Measures and Methods Used to Assess Solid Waste Quantities


Solid waste generation and collection rate chapter 6

Measures and Methods Used to Assess Solid Waste Quantities

  • Weight Volume Analysis

    • Weight –Volume data obtained by weighing and measuring each load provides better information on the specific weight of the various forms of solid wastes at a given location.

    • However, the question remains: what information is needed in terms of study objectives.


Solid waste generation and collection rate chapter 6

Measures and Methods Used to Assess Solid Waste Quantities

  • Materials Mass Balance Analysis

    • The only way to determine the generation and movement of solid wastes with any degree of reliability is to perform a detailed mass balance analysis for each generation source, such as an individual home or a commercial or industrial activity

    • The approach to be followed in the preparation of a materials mass balance analysis is as follows:

      • First, draw a system boundary around the unit to be studied to simplify the mass balance computations

      • Second, identify all the activities that cross or occur within the boundary and affect the generation of wastes

      • Third; identify the rate of waste generation associated with each of these activities

      • Fourth, determine the quantity of waste generated, collected and stored


Solid waste generation and collection rate chapter 6

Measures and Methods Used to Assess Solid Waste Quantities

  • Materials Mass Balance Analysis

    • Simplified word statement

    • Accumulation = inflow – outflow + generation

Outflow (Combustion gases and ashes)

Outflow (materials)

Stored materials (raw material, products, solid waste )

Inflow materials

Outflow (product)

Outflow (solid wastes , solids in wastewater)


Solid waste generation and collection rate chapter 6

Measures and Methods Used to Assess Solid Waste Quantities

  • Materials Mass Balance Analysis

    • Simplified word statement

    • Accumulation = inflow – outflow + generation

Outflow (Combustion gases and ashes)

Outflow (materials)

Stored materials (raw material, products, solid waste )

Inflow materials

Outflow (product)

Outflow (solid wastes , solids in wastewater)


Solid waste generation and collection rate chapter 6

Measures and Methods Used to Assess Solid Waste Quantities


Solid waste generation and collection rate chapter 6

Measures and Methods Used to Assess Solid Waste Quantities


Solid waste generation and collection rate chapter 6

Measures and Methods Used to Assess Solid Waste Quantities


Solid waste generation and collection rate chapter 6

Measures and Methods Used to Assess Solid Waste Quantities

  • Statistical Analysis of Measured Waste Quantities

    • In developing solid waste management systems, it is often necessary to determine the statistical characteristics of the observed solid waste generation rates

    • For many large industrial activities it would be impractical to provide container capacity to handle the largest conceivable quantity of solid waste to be generated in a given day.

    • The container capacity to be provided must be based on a statistical analysis of the generations rates and the characteristics of the collection system.


Solid waste generation and collection rate chapter 6

Measures and Methods Used to Assess Solid Waste Quantities


Solid waste generation and collection rate chapter 6

Measures and Methods Used to Assess Solid Waste Quantities


Solid waste generation and collection rate chapter 6

Measures and Methods Used to Assess Solid Waste Quantities


Solid waste generation and collection rate chapter 6

Measures and Methods Used to Assess Solid Waste Quantities


Solid waste generation and collection rate chapter 6

Solid Waste Generation and Collection Rate

  • Table 6-2 provides the estimated total per capita solid waste quantities generated in the united states and selected states for the year 1990

  • The quantities reported often do not reflect the amount of waste material that was:

    • Recycled ( directly and indirectly)

    • Ground up in kitchen food waste grinders

    • burned in fireplaces

    • composted

    • stored temporarily


Solid waste generation and collection rate chapter 6

Solid Waste Generation and Collection Rate


Solid waste generation and collection rate chapter 6

Solid Waste Generation and Collection Rate

  • Unit Solid Waste Generation Rates

    • Lb/capita . Yr for residential and commercial wastes

    • ton/ton of product for industrial and agricultural waste

    • By relating the unit rates of waste generation to some unit of production, comparisons can be made between facilities producing the same product in different parts of the country


Solid waste generation and collection rate chapter 6

Solid Waste Generation and Collection Rate


Solid waste generation and collection rate chapter 6

Solid Waste Generation and Collection Rate


Solid waste generation and collection rate chapter 6

Solid Waste Generation and Collection Rate


Solid waste generation and collection rate chapter 6

Solid Waste Generation and Collection Rate

  • Solid Waste Collection Rate

    • the difference between the amount of residential and commercial MSW generated and the amount of wastes collected for processing and/or disposal will typically vary from 4 to 15 percent

    • the difference can be accounted for by the amount of material

      • Composted

      • burned in fireplaces

      • discharged to sewers

      • given to charitable agencies

      • sold at garage sales

      • delivered to drop – off and recycling centers

      • recycled directly


Solid waste generation and collection rate chapter 6

Solid Waste Generation and Collection Rate

  • Variation in Generation and Collection Rates

    • the quantities of solid waste generated and collected vary daily, weekly, monthly and seasonally.

    • The variations take place due to holiday season and during the housecleaning days. unlimited collection service leads also to variation


Solid waste generation and collection rate chapter 6

Factors that Affect Waste Generation Rate

  • The generation rate of solid waste are affected by

    • Sources reduction and recycling activities

    • Public attitudes and legislation

    • Geographic and physical factors

  • Source reduction and recycling activities

    • waste reduction may occur through the design, manufacture and packaging of products with minimum toxic content, minimum volume of materials and/or a longer useful life.

    • Source reduction will likely become an important factor in reducing the quantity of waste generated in the future. Because source reduction is not a major element in waste reduction at the present time, it is difficult to estimate the actual impact that the source reduction programme have had or will have on the total quantity of waste generated.


Solid waste generation and collection rate chapter 6

Factors that Affect Waste Generation Rate

  • Ways in which source reduction can be achieved follow:

    • Decrease unnecessary or excessive packaging

    • Develop and use products with greater durability and repairability ( e.g., more durable appliances and tires)

    • Substitute reusable products for disposal, single – use products (e.g., reusable plates and cutlery, refillable beverage containers, cloth diapers and towels)

    • Use fewer resources (e.g., two – sided copying)

    • Increase the recycled materials content of products

    • Develop rate structure that encourage generators to produce less waste


Solid waste generation and collection rate chapter 6

Factors that Affect Waste Generation Rate

  • Extent of recycling

    • The existence of recycling programs within a community definitely affects the quantities of wastes collected for further processing or disposal.

  • Effect of public attitudes and legislation on waste generation

    • significant reduction in the quantities of solid waste generated occur when and if people are welling to change their habits and lifestyle to conserve natural resources and reduce the economic burdens associated with the management of solid wastes.

    • A program of continuing education is essential in bringing about a change in public attitude

    • Perhaps the most important factor affecting the generation of certain types of wastes is the existence of regulations concerning the use of specific materials (e.g., regulations dealing with packaging and beverage container materials and the beverage container with deposit laws)


Solid waste generation and collection rate chapter 6

Factors that Affect Waste Generation Rate

  • Geographic and physical factors

    • The climate influences both the amount of certain types of solid waste generated and the time period over which the wastes are generated (e.g., yard and garden wastes)

    • The quantities of certain type of solid wastes are also affected by the season of the year (e.g., the quantities of food wastes related to the growing season for vegetables and fruits )

    • Use of kitchen food waste grinder definitely reduces the quantity of kitchen wastes collected, whether they affect quantities of waste generated is not clear. Because the use of home grinders varies widely throughout the country.


Solid waste generation and collection rate chapter 6

Factors that Affect Waste Generation Rate


Solid waste generation and collection rate chapter 6

Factors that Affect Waste Generation Rate


Solid waste generation and collection rate chapter 6

Factors that Affect Waste Generation Rate

  • Frequency of collection

    • when unlimited collection services is provided, more wastes are generated.

    • For example, if a homeowner is limited to one or two containers per week, he may store newspaper or other materials ; with unlimited services, the homeowner would tend to throw them away.

    • in this situation the quantity of wastes generated may actually be the same, but the quantity collected is considerably different

    • the fundamental question of the effect of collection frequency on the waste generation remains unanswred.


Solid waste generation and collection rate chapter 6

Factors that Affect Waste Generation Rate

  • Characteristics of Service Area

    • pecularities of the service area can influence the quantity of solid waste generated.

    • for example, the quantities of yard wastes generated on a per capita basis are considerably greater in many wealthier neighborhoods than in other parts of the town.

    • other factors include the size of lot, the degree of landscaping and the frequency of yard maintenance.


Solid waste generation and collection rate chapter 6

Quantities of Materials Recovered from MSW

  • The estimated percentages of total amount of waste material that is now (1992) recovered from MSW by waste category are reported in Table 6-7.

  • For residential and commercial recycling in the United States estimates vary from 12-16 percent. Information on the other sectors is so site-specific that few generalizations are possible

  • The degree of recycling depends on the type of recycling programme that is in effect and on local regulations.


Solid waste generation and collection rate chapter 6

Quantities of Materials Recovered from MSW


Solid waste generation and collection rate chapter 6

Quantities of Household Hazardous Wastes

  • Data on the quantities of hazardous waste found in MSW are quite variable, depending on the method used to classify the hazardous waste materials. Thus , it is difficult to draw any firm conclusions concerning the actual quantities involved.

  • The results of a recently completed study of the hazardous waste constituents present in municipal waste are summarized in Table 6-8.

  • The quantities reported in Table 6-8 were determined on the basis of their toxicity using the criteria given in Table 6-9.

  • For example, Using the data given in Table 6-8. the percentage of HW in MSW generated in California is about 0.3 percent. If automotive batteries are excluded, the percentage of HW in the MSW is about 0.13 percent. So, depending on the definition used for hazardous wastes, it is clear that a wide range of percentage can be reported.


Solid waste generation and collection rate chapter 6

Quantities of Household Hazardous Wastes


Solid waste generation and collection rate chapter 6

Quantities of Household Hazardous Wastes


Solid waste generation and collection rate chapter 6

Waste Characterization and Diversion Studies

  • Waste Characterization

    • The goal of a waste characterization study is to identify the sources, characteristics, and quantities of the waste generated.

    • Waste characterization study is difficult to perform because of the large number of sources and the limited number of waste samples that can be analyzed

    • The typical steps involved in a waste characterization study are as follows:

      • Gather Existing Information

      • Identify Waste Generation Sources and Waste Characteristics

      • Develop Sampling Methodology

      • Conduct Field Studies

      • Conduct Market Surveys for Special Wastes

      • Assess Factors Affecting Waste Generation Rates


Solid waste generation and collection rate chapter 6

Waste Characterization and Diversion Studies

  • Source of Existing Information Include

  • Previous SWM studies and documents

  • Waste collection company record

  • Processing facility records ( composting facilities, incineration)

  • landfill and transfer station records

  • previous waste disposal studies

  • Information from comparable communities

  • Department of public works

  • Utilities

  • Retail trade record

  • Community employment records (Chamber of Commerce)

  • Identify Waste Generation Sources and Waste Characterization

  • Residential

  • Commercial

  • Institutional

  • Construction and demolition

  • Municipal services

  • Water and Wastewater plants

  • Industrial

  • Agricultural

  • Develop waste categories ( 6-10)

  • Sampling Methodology

  • Sampling identification and characteristics including

    • Sources

    • Size of sample

    • Number

  • Duration of sampling period

  • Time of year


Solid waste generation and collection rate chapter 6

Waste Characterization and Diversion Studies


Solid waste generation and collection rate chapter 6

Assessment of Current Waste Diversions

  • The goal of a waste diversion study is to identify the types and quantities of waste materials that are now separated for recycling or otherwise diverted from disposal in landfills.

  • The typical steps involved in a waste diversion study is as follows

  • 1. Gather Existing Information. Sources include

  • Previous solid waste management study

  • Previous waste diversion studies

  • Curbside recycling programme ( private and public)

  • MRFs

  • Buy – back centers

  • Drop – off centers

  • charitable and service organization

  • 2. Develop Methodology for Estimating the Quantities of Waste now Diverted

  • Residential

  • Commercial

  • Institutional

  • Construction and Demolition

  • Municipal Services

  • Water and WWTPs

  • Industrial

  • Agricultural

3. Identify other Existing Activities

4. Conduct Field Study

5. Assess Factors Affecting Waste Diversion Wastes


Solid waste generation and collection rate chapter 6

Analysis of Total Waste Generated and Diverted

  • To assess the quantity of waste that is currently diverted, it will be necessary to first develop data on the total quantity of waste generated.

  • The total waste generated will be made up of the amount of waste now placed in a landfill and the amount of waste now diverted.

  • In determining the amount of waste diverted, a number of ambiguities will arise in the interpretation of what exactly is a waste material.

  • Some states have ruled that federal and state mandated diversion percentages must be based on waste materials that are now discharged to landfills. Thus, if a material is considered a waste by a discharger, but is now totally recycled it could be considered in determining the percentages diversion.


Solid waste generation and collection rate chapter 6

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